Botany Week 4
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Parker Thurston on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BOT 1114 at University of Oklahoma taught by Michael Kistenmacher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Botany in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Week 4: Monday: Write the methods in past tense Inner membrane of chloroplast made of pancakelike membrane with embedded pigments and proteins PS1 (P700) PS2 (P680) chlorophyll steals electron from water water is split into Oxygen and 2 hydrogens oxygen bonds with another oxygen and forms O2 oxygen we breathe comes from water moving electron pumps hydrogen into lumen (inside membrane), which increases hydrogen concentration hydrogen in lumen has affinity to move towards Ferredoxin (outside membrane) these hydrogen atoms moving can be used to make ATP ATP uses energy, turns into ADP, which gains energy and turns back into ATP ATP: ademosine Triphosphate when bond of third phosphate is lost, energy is released and ATP becomes ADP Calvin Cycle can only occur with both ATP and NADPH present 5 carbon chain RuBP combines with CO2 to make 6 carbon chain Rubisco is most important enzyme on earth (turns CO2 into Sugar at lower energy level) 6 carbon chain splits (too unstable to stay as 6) into 2 3PGA (3 carbon chains) combine, with ATP, results in sugar, as well as RuBP which goes to restart cycle cycle cannot occur in dark indefinitely, needs a supply of ATP+NADPH RuBP can bind with oxygen (photorespiration) which costs plant energy, results in net loss of energy energy is ALWAYS LOST via heat Triose P molecule can be turned into any other molecule the cell needs hydrogen is released by proteins and only by proteins Tuesday: too much light will negatively affect photosynthesis too much heat will negatively affect photosynthesis too much cold will negatively affect photosynthesis leaf size correlates type of environment they usually grow in at lower CO2 concentrations there is less photosynthesis photosynthesis does not have to occur in all parts of a plant PHOTOSYSTEM 2 IS FIRST IN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Thursday: cellular respiration: the process in which the chemical bonds of energyrich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy useful for life processes (ATP) Reverse reaction of photosynthesis begins in cytoplasm and ends in mitochondria uses O2 and releases CO2 starts with sugar + oxygen => water + ATP + heat anaerobic respiration occurs when you don’t have enough oxygen is problem: generates lactic acid occurs in plants when flooded or at high altitudes aerenchyma: specialized cells in some aquatic plants which have lots of air spaces between cells 90% of energy is lost through heat when transferred from one thing to another glucose: major starting point of cellular respiration 2 functions atp production step 1. glycolysis glucose (2 atp) =>2 pyruvate molecules (+4 atp, +2 NADH) net energy gain of glycolysis: +2 atp, +2 NADP if oxygen is absent, then fermentation will occur in plants and fungi step 2. anaerobic respiration: continued if O2 absent pyruvate converted to ethanol (2NADH) net energy gain: +2ATP
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