BIO 201: Into to A&P
BIO 201: Into to A&P BIO 201
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by ASUNursing19 on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 201 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Penkrot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy/Physiology I in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
The Human Body: An Orientation 1.1 Form (Anatomy) Determines Function (Physiology) Anatomy v. Physiology ANATOMY is the study of structure o Gross Anatomy: study of observable structures o Histology: study of tissues, cells o Pathology: study of incorrect/diseased anatomy PHYSIOLOGY is the study of how these structures function o Physiology: how the systems work o Pathophysiology: study of how disease works Topics of Anatomy Subdivisions of anatomy: o Gross or acroscopic anatomy is the study of large, visible structures Regional anatomy looks at all structures in a particular area of the body System anatomy looks at just one system (cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, etc.) Surface anatomy looks at internal structures as they relate to overlying skin (visible muscle masses or veins seen on surface) o Microscopic anatomy deals with structures too small to be seen by the naked eye Cytology: microscopic study of cells Histology: microscopic study of tissues o Developmental anatomy studies anatomical and physiological development throughout life Embryology: study of developments before birth To study anatomy, one must know anatomical terminology and be able to observe, manipulate, palpate, and auscultate Anatomy The Study of Form Examining structure of the Human Body o Inspection o Palpation o Auscultation o Percussion Cadaver dissection o Cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships Comparative anatomy o Study of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities and differences, and analyze evolutionary trends Topics of Physiology Subdivisions of physiology o Based on organ systems (e.g., renal or cardiovascular physiology) o Often focuses on cellular and molecular levels of the body Looks at how the body's abilities are dependent on chemical reactions in individual cells To study physiology, one must understand basic physical principles (e.g., electrical currents, pressure, and movement) as well as basic chemical principles (e.g., gradients) Complementarity of Structure and Function Anatomy and physiology are inseparable o Function always reflects structure o What a structure can do depends on its specific form o Known as the principle of complementarity of structure and function Principle of Complementarity Function always reflects structure What a structure can de depends on its specific form 1.2 The Body's Organization Ranges From Atoms to the Entire Organism Human body is very organized, from the smallest chemical level to whole organism level: o Chemical level: atoms, molecules, and organelles o Cellular level: single cell o Tissue level: groups of similar cells o Organ level : contains two or more types of tissues o Organ system level : organs that work closely together o Organismal level : all organ systems combined to make the whole organism Physiological Organization The levels of organization are: Organismal, Organ, Tissue, Cellular, Molecular Historically, this has been the order physiology was discovered, and therefore it was used as the basis of teaching Anatomical Variation No two humans are exactly alike o 70% most common structure o 30% anatomically variant o Variable number of organs Missing muscles, extra vertebrae, renal arteries o Variation in organ locations (situs solitus, situs inversus, dextrocardia) o Spleen, kidney vary somewhat, vasculature varies considerably Integumentary System Forms the external body covering Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D Skeletal System Composed of bones, cartilage, ligaments Protects and supports body organs Provides the framework for muscles** Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals Muscular System Composed of muscles and tendons Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression (communication) Maintains posture Produces heat Nervous System Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves Is the fastacting control system of the body Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands Cardiovascular System Composed of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood The blood vessel transport blood throughout the body Lymphatic System Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood Disposes of debris in the lymphatic steam Houses white blood cells involved with immunity Respiratory System Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Keeps blood supplied wit oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Digestive System Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces Urinary System Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood Male Reproduction System Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens Main function is the production of offspring Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract Female Reproductive System Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina Main function is the production of offspring Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn Organ Systems Interrelationships Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Nothing in the body works in isolation! 1.3 What are the Requirements for Life? Necessary Life Functions Maintenance of life involves: o Maintaining boundaries o Movement o Responsiveness o Digestion o Metabolism o Excretion o Reproduction o Growth Maintaining boundaries o Separation between internal and external environments must exist Plasma membranes separate cells Skin separates organism from environment Movement o Muscular system allows movement Of body parts via skeletal muscles Of substance via cardiac muscle (blood) and smooth muscle (digestion, urination) Contractility refers to movement at the cellular level Responsiveness o Ability to sense and respond to stimuli Withdrawal reflex prevents injury Control of breathing rate, which must change in response to different activities Digestion o Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs, followed by absorption of simple molecules into blood Metabolism o All chemical reactions that occur in body cells Sum of all catabolism (breakdown of molecules) and anabolism (synthesis of molecules) Excretion o Removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion Urea (from breakdown of proteins), carbon dioxide (from metabolism), feces (unabsorbed foods) Reproduction o At the cellular level, reproduction involves division of cell for growth or repair o At the organism level, reproduction is the production of offspring Growth o Increase in size of a body part or of organism Humans are multicellular, so to function, individual cells must be kept alive o Organ systems are designed to service the cells o All cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs There are 11 organ systems that work together to maintain life Survival Needs Humans need several factors for survival that must be in the appropriate amounts; too much or too little can be harmful: o Nutrients o Oxygen o Water o Normal body temperature ("heat") o Appropriate atmospheric pressure 1.4 Homeostasis is Maintained by Negative Feedback Chemical and Pressure Gradients Gradients and regulated via HOMEOSTASIS Perfluorocarbon for breathing liquid Homeostasis HOMEOSTASIS the body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions Ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an everchanging outside world The internal environment of the body is in a state of dynamic equilibrium Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis Claude Bernard (18131878) o Constant internal conditions regardless of external conditions Internal body temperature ranges from 9799 degrees despite variations in external temperature Walter Cannon (18711945) o Coined the term "homeostasis" o State of the body fluctuates (dynamic equilibrium) within limited range around a set point o Negative feedback keeps variable close to the set point Loss of homeostatic control causes illness or death Homeostatic Controls Body must constantly be monitored and regulated to maintain homeostasis o Nervous and endocrine systems, as well as other systems, play a major role in maintaining homeostasis o Variables are factors that can change; anything that needs to be maintained and stabilized in the body (blood sugar, body temperature, blood volume, pH of blood, concentration of calcium ions in blood, etc.) Homeostatic control of variables involves three components: receptor, control center, and effector Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Variables produce a change in the body The three interdependent components of control mechanisms: o Receptor : monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli) o Control center ("integrator") : determines the set point at which the variable is maintained; usually found in the brain stem o Effector : provides the means to respond to stimuli Feedback: How the Body Maintains Homeostasis Positive feedback works with the direction of change o Takes a physiological change and amplifies it, makes it bigger, runs with it; doesn't happen often Negative feedback works against the direction of change (considered homeostatic) o Takes a physiological change and counteracts it; maintains homeostasis Almost all systems in the body are negative feedback Positive feedback is much rarer in biological system, but there are a few notable examples Negative Feedback Loop Body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it dynamic equilibrium Negative Feedback, Set Point Room temperature does not stay at set point of 68 degreesit only 68 averages degrees Interactions Among the Elements of a Homeostatic Control System Maintain Stable Internal Conditions Control of Blood Pressure Positive Feedback Loops Selfamplifying cycle o Leads to greater change in the same direction o Feedback loop is repeatedchange produces more change Normal way of producing rapid and/or large changes o Occurs with childbirth, blood clotting, protein digestion, fever, and generation of nerve signals Often associated with dysfunction, disease, or harm o Can spiral out of control Example: Harmful Positive Feedback Loop Fever > 104 degrees F o Metabolic rate increases o Body produces heat even faster o Body temperature continues to rise o Further increasing metabolic rate Cycle continues to reinforce itself Becomes fatal at 113 degrees F A Positive Feedback Mechanism Regulates Formation of a Platelet Plug Homeostatic Imbalance Disturbance of homeostasis o Increases risk of disease o Contributes to changes associated with aging Control systems become less efficient If negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed, destructive positive feedback mechanisms may take over o i.e.: heart failure 1.5 Anatomical Terms Describe Body Directions, Regions, and Planes Anatomical Position and Directional Terms Standard anatomical position o Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms, facing forward with thumbs pointing away from body Directional terms describe one body structure in relation to another body structure o Direction is always based on standard anatomical position o Right and left refer to the body being viewed, not right and left of observer Regional Terms Two major divisions of body o Axial Head, neck, and trunk o Appendicular Limbs (upper and lower) Regional terms designate specific areas within body divisions Body Planes and Sections Body planes o Surfaces along which body or structures may be cut for anatomical study o Three most common planes: Sagittal plane Frontal (coronal) plane Transverse (horizontal) plane Sections o Cuts or sections made along a body plane Named after plane, so a sagittal cut results in a sagittal section Sagittal plane o Divides body vertically into right and left parts o Produces a sagittal section if cut along this plane o Midsagittal (median) plane Cut was made perfectly on midline o Parasagittal plane Cut was offcentered, not on middle Frontal (coronal) plane o Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts (front and back) o Produces a frontal or coronal section Transverse (horizontal) plane o Divides body horizontally (90* to vertical plane) into superior and inferior parts (top and bottom) o Produces a cross section Oblique section o Result of cuts at angle other than 90* to vertical plane 1.6 Many Internal Organs Lie in Membranelined Body Cavities Body contains internal cavities that are closed to environment Cavities provide different degrees of protection to organs within them Two sets of cavities o Dorsal body cavity o Ventral body cavity Dorsal Body Cavity Protects fragile nervous system organs Two subdivisions o Cranial cavity Encases brain o Vertebral orpinal cavity Encases spinal cord Ventral Body Cavity Houses the internal organs (collectively called cera) Two subdivisions, which are separated by the diaphragm o Thoracic cavity o Abdominopelvic cavity THORACIC CAVITY Two pleural cavities o Each cavity surrounds one lung Mediastinum o Contains pericardial cavity o Surrounds other thoracic organs, such as esophagus, trachea, etc. Pericardial cavity o Encloses heart ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY Abdominal cavity o Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver Pelvic cavity o Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity Serosa (also called rous membrane ) o Thin, doublelayered membranes that cover surfaces in ventral body cavity Parietal serosa lines internal body cavity walls Visceral serosa covers internal organs (viscera) o Double layers are separated by slitlike cavity filled with s fluid o Fluid secreted by both layers of membrane o Named for specific cavity and organs that they are associated with o Pericardium Heart o Pleurae Lungs o Peritoneum Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants o Quadrants are divisions used primarily by medical personnel o Abdominopelvic region is sectioned into quarters Right upper quadrant RUQ Left upper quadrant LUQ Right lower quadrant RLQ Left lower quadrant LLQ Nine divisions called regions , resembling a tictac toe grid, are used primarily by anatomists Epigastric Region: superior to the umbilical region (epi = upon, above; gastri = belly) Umbilical Region: centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel) Hypogastric Region: inferior to the umbilical region (hypo = below) Right and Left Iliac (Inguinal) Regions : lateral to the hypogastric regioniliac = superior part of the hip bone) Right and Left Lumbar Regions : lateral to the umbilical region (lumbus = loin) Right and Left Hypochondriac Regions : lateral to the epigastric region and deep to the ribs Other Body Cavities In addition to the two main body cavities, the body has several smaller cavities that are exposed to environment Oral and digestive cavities: mouth Nasal cavity : located within and posterior to the nose; part of the respiratory system passageways Orbital cavities (orbits): house the eyes; present them in anterior position Middle ear cavities: medial to the eardrums; contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears o Not exposed to environment: Synovial cavities: joint cavities; enclosed within fibrous capsules that surrounds freely moveable joints of the body (elbow, knee joints)
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