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BIO 201: Into to A&P

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by: ASUNursing19

BIO 201: Into to A&P BIO 201

Marketplace > Arizona State University > Biology > BIO 201 > BIO 201 Into to A P
GPA 3.93

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Covers Chapter 1: Intro. to A&P
Human Anatomy/Physiology I
Dr. Penkrot
Class Notes
25 ?




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"I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!"
Enrico Kozey Jr.

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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by ASUNursing19 on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 201 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Penkrot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy/Physiology I in Biology at Arizona State University.


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I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!

-Enrico Kozey Jr.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
The Human Body: An Orientation   1.1 Form (Anatomy) Determines Function (Physiology)   Anatomy v. Physiology    ANATOMY  is the study of structure o Gross Anatomy: study of observable structures o Histology: study of tissues, cells o Pathology: study of incorrect/diseased anatomy    PHYSIOLOGY  is the study of how these structures function o Physiology: how the systems work o Pathophysiology: study of how disease works   Topics of Anatomy    Subdivisions of anatomy: o Gross  or acroscopic anatomy  is the study of large, visible structures  Regional anatomy looks at all structures in a particular area of the  body  System anatomy looks at just one system (cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, etc.)  Surface anatomy looks at internal structures as they relate to  overlying skin (visible muscle masses or veins seen on surface) o Microscopic anatomy  deals with structures too small to be seen by the  naked eye  Cytology: microscopic study of cells  Histology: microscopic study of tissues o Developmental anatomy  studies anatomical and physiological  development throughout life  Embryology: study of developments before birth  To study anatomy, one must know anatomical terminology and be able to  observe, manipulate, palpate, and auscultate   Anatomy ­ The Study of Form    Examining structure of the Human Body o Inspection o Palpation o Auscultation o Percussion  Cadaver dissection o Cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships  Comparative anatomy o Study of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities  and differences, and analyze evolutionary trends   Topics of Physiology    Subdivisions of physiology o Based on organ systems (e.g., renal or cardiovascular physiology) o Often focuses on cellular and molecular levels of the body  Looks at how the body's abilities are dependent on chemical  reactions in individual cells  To study physiology, one must understand basic physical principles (e.g.,  electrical currents, pressure, and movement) as well as basic chemical principles (e.g.,  gradients)   Complementarity of Structure and Function    Anatomy and physiology are inseparable o Function always reflects structure o What a structure can do depends on its specific form o Known as the  principle of complementarity of structure and function   Principle of Complementarity    Function always reflects structure  What a structure can de depends on its specific form   1.2 The Body's Organization Ranges From Atoms to the  Entire Organism    Human body is very organized, from the smallest chemical level to whole  organism level: o Chemical level: atoms, molecules, and organelles o Cellular level: single cell o Tissue level: groups of similar cells o Organ level : contains two or more types of tissues o Organ system level : organs that work closely together o Organismal level : all organ systems combined to make the whole  organism   Physiological Organization    The levels of organization are: Organismal, Organ, Tissue, Cellular, Molecular  Historically, this has been the order physiology was discovered, and therefore it  was used as the basis of teaching Anatomical Variation    No two humans are exactly alike o 70% most common structure o 30% anatomically variant o Variable number of organs  Missing muscles, extra vertebrae, renal arteries o Variation in organ locations (situs solitus, situs inversus, dextrocardia) o Spleen, kidney vary somewhat, vasculature varies considerably   Integumentary System    Forms the external body covering  Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and  nails  Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes  vitamin D     Skeletal System    Composed of bones, cartilage, ligaments  Protects and supports body organs  Provides the framework for muscles**  Site of blood cell formation  Stores minerals   Muscular System    Composed of muscles and tendons  Allows manipulation of the environment,  locomotion, and facial expression (communication)  Maintains posture  Produces heat     Nervous System    Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves  Is the fast­acting control system of the body  Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands     Cardiovascular System    Composed of the heart and blood vessels  The heart pumps blood  The blood vessel transport blood throughout the  body     Lymphatic System    Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen,  lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels  Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood  Disposes of debris in the lymphatic steam  Houses white blood cells involved with immunity   Respiratory System    Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi,  and lungs  Keeps blood supplied wit oxygen and removes carbon  dioxide     Digestive System    Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach,  pancreas, liver, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and  anus  Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the  blood  Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces     Urinary System    Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and  urethra  Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body  Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the  blood     Male Reproduction System    Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and  ductus deferens  Main function is the production of offspring  Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones  Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female  reproductive tract    Female Reproductive System    Composed of mammary glands, ovaries,  uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina  Main function is the production of offspring  Ovaries produce eggs and female sex  hormones  Remaining structures serve as sites for  fertilization and development of the fetus  Mammary glands produce milk to nourish  the newborn Organ Systems Interrelationships    Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood  Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems   Nothing in the body works in isolation!     1.3 What are the Requirements for Life?   Necessary Life Functions    Maintenance of life involves: o Maintaining boundaries o Movement o Responsiveness o Digestion o Metabolism o Excretion o Reproduction o Growth  Maintaining boundaries o Separation between internal and external environments must exist  Plasma membranes separate cells  Skin separates organism from environment  Movement o Muscular system allows movement  Of body parts via skeletal muscles  Of substance via cardiac muscle (blood) and smooth muscle  (digestion, urination)  Contractility refers to movement at the cellular level  Responsiveness o Ability to sense and respond to stimuli  Withdrawal reflex prevents injury  Control of breathing rate, which must change in response to  different activities  Digestion o Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs, followed by absorption of simple  molecules into blood  Metabolism o All chemical reactions that occur in body cells  Sum of all catabolism (breakdown of molecules) and anabolism  (synthesis of molecules)  Excretion o Removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion  Urea (from breakdown of proteins), carbon dioxide (from  metabolism), feces (unabsorbed foods)  Reproduction o At the cellular level, reproduction involves division of cell for growth or  repair o At the organism level, reproduction is the production of offspring  Growth o Increase in size of a body part or of organism  Humans are  multicellular, so to function, individual cells must be kept alive o Organ systems are designed to service the cells o All cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs  There are 11 organ systems that work together to maintain life   Survival Needs    Humans need several factors for survival that must be in the appropriate amounts; too much or too little can be harmful: o Nutrients o Oxygen o Water o Normal body temperature ("heat") o Appropriate atmospheric pressure   1.4 Homeostasis is Maintained by Negative Feedback   Chemical and Pressure Gradients    Gradients and regulated via HOMEOSTASIS  Perfluorocarbon ­ for breathing liquid   Homeostasis    HOMEOSTASIS  ­­ the body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that  oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions  Ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever­changing  outside world  The internal environment of the body is in a state of dynamic equilibrium  Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis  Claude Bernard (1813­1878) o Constant internal conditions regardless of external conditions  Internal body temperature ranges from 97­99 degrees despite  variations in external temperature  Walter Cannon (1871­1945) o Coined the term "homeostasis" o State of the body fluctuates (dynamic equilibrium) within limited range  around a set point o Negative feedback keeps variable close to the set point  Loss of homeostatic control causes illness or death   Homeostatic Controls    Body must constantly be monitored and regulated to maintain homeostasis o Nervous and endocrine systems, as well as other systems, play a major  role in maintaining homeostasis o Variables  are factors that can change; anything that needs to be  maintained and stabilized in the body (blood sugar, body temperature, blood  volume, pH of blood, concentration of calcium ions in blood, etc.)  Homeostatic control of variables involves three components:  receptor, control  center, and effector   Homeostatic Control Mechanisms    Variables produce a change in the body  The three interdependent components of control mechanisms: o Receptor : monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli) o Control center ("integrator") : determines the set point at which the  variable is maintained; usually found in the brain stem o Effector : provides the means to respond to stimuli   Feedback: How the Body Maintains Homeostasis    Positive feedback works  with the direction of change o Takes a physiological change and amplifies it, makes it bigger, runs with  it; doesn't happen often  Negative feedback  works against the direction of change (considered  homeostatic) o Takes a physiological change and counteracts it; maintains homeostasis  Almost all systems in the body are negative feedback  Positive feedback is much rarer in biological system, but there are a few notable  examples   Negative Feedback Loop    Body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it ­­  dynamic  equilibrium   Negative Feedback, Set Point    Room temperature does not stay at set point of 68 degrees­­it only   68  averages degrees Interactions Among the Elements of a Homeostatic Control System Maintain  Stable Internal Conditions     Control of Blood Pressure     Positive Feedback Loops    Self­amplifying cycle o Leads to greater change in the same direction o Feedback loop is repeated­­change produces more change  Normal way of producing rapid and/or large changes o Occurs with childbirth, blood clotting, protein digestion, fever, and  generation of nerve signals  Often associated with dysfunction, disease, or harm o Can spiral out of control   Example: Harmful Positive Feedback Loop  Fever > 104 degrees F o Metabolic rate increases o Body produces heat even faster o Body temperature continues to rise o Further increasing metabolic rate  Cycle continues to reinforce itself  Becomes fatal at 113 degrees F   A Positive Feedback Mechanism Regulates Formation of a Platelet Plug   Homeostatic Imbalance    Disturbance of homeostasis o Increases risk of disease o Contributes to changes associated with aging  Control systems become less efficient  If negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed, destructive positive  feedback mechanisms may take over o i.e.: heart failure     1.5 Anatomical Terms Describe Body Directions, Regions, and Planes   Anatomical Position and Directional Terms    Standard anatomical position o Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms, facing forward with thumbs pointing away from body  Directional terms  describe one body structure in relation to another body  structure o Direction is always based on standard anatomical position o Right and left refer to the body being viewed, not right and left of observer   Regional Terms    Two major divisions of body o Axial  Head, neck, and trunk o Appendicular  Limbs (upper and lower)  Regional terms  designate specific areas within body divisions   Body Planes and Sections    Body planes o Surfaces along which body or structures may be cut for anatomical study o Three most common planes:  Sagittal plane  Frontal (coronal) plane  Transverse (horizontal) plane  Sections o Cuts or sections made along a body plane  Named after plane, so a sagittal cut results in a sagittal section  Sagittal plane o Divides body vertically into right and left parts o Produces a sagittal section if cut along this plane o Mid­sagittal (median) plane  Cut was made perfectly on midline o Parasagittal plane  Cut was off­centered, not on middle  Frontal (coronal) plane o Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts (front and back) o Produces a frontal or coronal section  Transverse (horizontal) plane o Divides body horizontally (90* to vertical plane) into superior and inferior parts (top and bottom) o Produces a cross section  Oblique section o Result of cuts at angle other than 90* to vertical plane       1.6 Many Internal Organs Lie in Membrane­lined Body  Cavities    Body contains internal cavities that are closed to environment  Cavities provide different degrees of protection to organs within them  Two sets of cavities o Dorsal body cavity o Ventral body cavity     Dorsal Body Cavity    Protects fragile nervous system organs  Two subdivisions o Cranial cavity  Encases brain o Vertebral  orpinal cavity  Encases spinal cord   Ventral Body Cavity    Houses the internal organs (collectively called cera)  Two subdivisions, which are separated by the diaphragm o Thoracic cavity o Abdominopelvic cavity   THORACIC CAVITY  Two  pleural cavities o Each cavity surrounds one lung  Mediastinum o Contains pericardial cavity o Surrounds other thoracic organs, such as esophagus, trachea, etc.  Pericardial cavity o Encloses heart   ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY  Abdominal cavity o Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver  Pelvic cavity o Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum   Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity    Serosa  (also called rous membrane ) o Thin, double­layered membranes that cover surfaces in ventral body cavity  Parietal serosa lines internal body cavity walls  Visceral serosa covers internal organs (viscera) o Double layers are separated by slit­like cavity filled with s fluid o Fluid secreted by both layers of membrane   o Named for specific cavity and organs that they are associated with o Pericardium  Heart o Pleurae  Lungs o Peritoneum  Abdominopelvic cavity     Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants   o Quadrants are divisions used primarily by medical personnel o Abdominopelvic region is sectioned into quarters  Right upper quadrant ­­ RUQ  Left upper quadrant ­­ LUQ  Right lower quadrant ­­ RLQ  Left lower quadrant ­­ LLQ      Nine divisions called regions , resembling a tic­tac­ toe grid, are used primarily by anatomists  Epigastric Region: superior to the umbilical region (epi = upon, above; gastri = belly)  Umbilical Region: centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel)  Hypogastric Region: inferior to the umbilical region (hypo  = below)  Right  and Left Iliac (Inguinal) Regions : lateral to the hypogastric regioniliac = superior part of the hip bone)  Right  and Left Lumbar Regions : lateral to the umbilical region (lumbus  = loin)  Right  and Left Hypochondriac Regions : lateral to the epigastric region and deep to the ribs     Other Body Cavities    In addition to the two main body cavities, the body has several smaller  cavities that are exposed to environment  Oral  and digestive cavities: mouth  Nasal cavity : located within and posterior to the nose; part of the  respiratory system passageways  Orbital cavities (orbits): house the eyes; present them in anterior  position  Middle ear cavities: medial to the eardrums; contain tiny bones  that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears o Not exposed to environment:  Synovial cavities: joint cavities; enclosed within fibrous capsules  that surrounds freely moveable joints of the body (elbow, knee joints)


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