1/15 Notes (Last section of notes for Exam 1)
1/15 Notes (Last section of notes for Exam 1) HDFS 1070
Popular in Individual and Family Development
Popular in Human Development
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.
Reviews for 1/15 Notes (Last section of notes for Exam 1)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/14/16
Psychological/Emotional Development 2/15/16 Lecture Notes In infancy, we talk about factors that are most related to individuality and the uniqueness of that individual. Each one of us has working models of social relationships which influence how we structure and experience relationships with friends, family and intimate partners. How much anxiety an individual is exposed to and how unmanaged anxieties manifest themselves influence how people approach life, work, and relationships with others. When an individual is under too much anxiety they decompensate (ability to cope breaks down, behavior less adaptive, become more self destructive and act in ways that undermine their quality of life and relationships). Every individual has a threshold for anxiety before they become deconstructive. Psychological and Emotional Development Personality orientations o There are 5 different personality traits; each one of us possesses these traits to greater or less degrees. Ex. Could be very high in openness why very low in conscientiousness o Each of us to some extent are open or closed Feelings of emotional contentment People’s Personality Differs Considerably What accounts for these individual differences? o How we learn to cope with the anxiety in our life (extroversion and introversion) o Paint a picture of individuals who are on a different path in terms of how they live their lives and interact with others Big 5 Personality Traits Openness o Vivid imagination o Full of ideas and open to ideas o Contemplative always thinking and reflecting on things o Enthusiasm for thinking and why things are happening o Open to challenges and life Conscientiousness o Like order o Lists o Always prepared o Follow a schedule/plan o If extreme: obsessive compulsive in nature o People low in this are fine with disorder and chaos with no schedule Extroversion o Comfortable around people o Talkative o Don’t mind being the center of attention enjoy it at times o When an extrovert gets anxious, he or she manages the anxiety by seeking out contact with people most comfortable when they are talking and relating with others o Introverts, on the other hand, are usually not comfortable around people, not really talkative, don’t like being the center of attention When they get anxious they tend to isolate selves from people (like to be alone) o Problems can occur if an extrovert and introvert are in a relationship (friend or lover) Agreeableness o Sympathetic o Takes time for others o Tends to be oriented towards people o Open to people’s feelings and their experiences o When low in this, tend to not notice what other people are feeling and doesn’t take time for others Neuroticism o Easily disturbed o Doesn’t have a lot of space in their life for joy, even when good things happen. Starts worrying right away about maintaining that joy, which in turn creates less happiness. Can’t be in the present o Worry easily o Anticipate or expect the worst o Easily made anxious wind up becoming disturbed, worried, self centered (internal anxious dialogue) Behavior and thinking compromised easily by being made anxious Ex. Why did she look at me that way? How come she isn’t calling me back? ALWAYS worrying about what others think of him or her People’s Sense of Wellbeing Differs Considerably Life satisfaction Contentment Experiences of joy o How do we account for these differences? Bowen: what goes on inside our family origin creates contentment or anxiety which structures how one experiences relationships and how they cope with life’s challenges Ex. If one comes from a poorly differentiated family: patterns and processes leave with anxiety with whether we matter and whether we are component, which in turn creates neuroticism. If one grows up in an environment that is high in competence, he or she is open to new experiences and change (different orientation than that of a person from a poorly differentiated family) Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory importance of ANXIETY BASIC POINT (epigenetically rounded theory) – “Psychological development is influenced by the anxiety that results from the unique interaction between inner biological needs and social expectations and demands AND how this anxiety is managed” (Sabatelli). People are influenced by how they manage their sources of anxiety in their life. He points to the fact that in every stage of life, there are social expectations and environmentally imposed demands that generate anxiety for individuals. How their personality evolves stems from how that individual deals with their anxiety (social expectations and demands create pressures on individuals in a stage specific way). They develop different coping mechanisms to deal with life’s demands/tension. How that individual manages that anxiety sets a stage on how they live their life. o Ex. High school age: identity issues. Everyone asks where you are going to school and what you want to do. If you figure it out, sets the stage to moving into adulthood smoothly. But if you remain overwhelmed by that anxiety, it is not a foundation for adulthood doesn’t succeed and doesn’t have a lot of joy in their life because of this. (Stage specific sources of anxiety) Basic Concepts (Erikson): Psychosocial Stages – at critical points in life we need to develop psychological resources (personality dispositions) that impact on subsequent/later development o Ex. Adolescence: need to develop an identity which impacts on later development – need to develop good work ethic and have positive outlook on it in order to function like that as an adult Psychosocial crisis – the conflict between stage specific social expectations and demands and psychological needs o Stage specific social expectations and demands that generate anxiety within an individual Adolescence: everyone tells you what you should do in college to make money which creates a lot of stress and anxiety Central Processes for Resolving the Crisis o Some key things that need to happen in order to resolve the crisis of a specific stage of life—central processes are the key occurrences that enable you to succeed with resolving a crisis o Ex. Having the opportunity to go to college to explore and experiment with what you want to do careerwise Coping Behavior – “include ability to gain and process new information; ability to maintain control over one’s emotional state; ability to move freely within one’s environment versus anxiety about self; excessive fears; withdrawal from relationships, and depression” (Sabatelli). o As a result of how you manage the crisis, you either get good personality traits and dispositions or bad ones which either help or interfere with future coping o Erikson helps us zero in on the stage specific sources of anxiety which challenge us to meet those challenges—provide us with opportunities to either gain or fail to gain resources to cope o Primeadaptive ego qualities (good coping behavior) Being optimistic and hopeful Liking to be challenged o Core Pathologies (bad coping behavior) Interferes with the success and management with future challenges Ex. Procrastinate because anxious about competency—not a good coping behavior The Psychosocial Crisis of Infancy (highlighted as important for the exam) o Psychosocial stage: Trust versus Mistrust – Why the focus on Trust? o Trust: the crisis of this period is that as you move through infancy, we expect you to be able to trust that the people around you will understand and meet your needs and expect you to regulate your emotions and distress in anticipation that your needs will be met. A baby starts out stressing anxiety at everything that creates stress in him or her (sleepy, hungry, noisy environment basically cry about every stress). Initially when a baby is very young, caretakers meet those needs regardless of the timing and situation, but, as babies move to the later stages of infancy, caretakers expect them to regulate their emotions when they are hungry and they need a few minutes before feeding them. This is a progressive way in which we socialize children to regulate their emotions and trust that their needs will be met. If one doesn’t trust that those needs will be met, they will not regulate those emotions and keep crying. o Central Process (resolves the crisis) – What needs to occur in order for the crisis to be successfully resolved? Mutuality with Caregivers (in infancy this is the central process): The job of the caretakers is to differentiate the different kinds of needs, understand those needs, and meet those needs in order to reduce the baby’s anxieties— if this is done, the baby begins to trust the world and regulate his or her negative emotions. o What is needed to help babies solve the crisis with trust vs. mistrust: When caregivers understand the needs of a child and meet those needs, the child experiences a sense of mutuality with the caregiver. When that happens enough of the time, the child begins to regulate emotions better and trust and develop a set of expectations that the world is a trustworthy place. This mutuality involves these 3 factors: Coordination Mismatch Communication repairs—try something different to reduce the anxiety o Ex. If people observe a parent with an anxious baby, the parent tries to coordinate their behavior with the baby’s anxiety (tries to feed it), mismatch can occur which would mean they aren’t hungry and need something else, so communication repair is used to find the origin of the baby’s distress: o How we live our lives is an outcome of our mutuality with caregivers Coping Behaviors Successful coping with a crisis leads to the development of Prime Adaptive Ego Qualities (through coordination and repair and mutuality with caregiver) having a trustful outlook o HOPE – the successful resolution of the crisis leads to people having a hopeful orientation and way of looking at the world and others Unsuccessful coping with a crisis leads to the development of Core Pathologies o WITHDRAWAL (Pessimism)—in young children when they are easily made anxious about whether they can trust in the environment, basically isolate, withdraw, and fail to engage because he or she is so caught up in their own anxiety o Reluctant to engage LifeSpan Trajectory Implications? Epigenetic assumptions o Predetermined? The way you are cared for by your caretaker is a pretty accurate representation of how you will cope, interact and develop personalitywise throughout life o Probabilistic? You can have good attachments and relationships with parents but still be withdrawn because of things that happen along the way socially with others Change requires that you better manage your anxiety with more constructive models Intervention: Need therapy for this (instruction and guidance to replace negative working models with more constructive ones) Sabatelli, Ronald. “Psychological/Emotional Development.” HDFS 1070. University of Connecticut, Storrs. 15 February 2016. Lecture.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'