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1/15 Notes (Last section of notes for Exam 1)

by: Victoria Tabacchini

1/15 Notes (Last section of notes for Exam 1) HDFS 1070

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Human Development > HDFS 1070 > 1 15 Notes Last section of notes for Exam 1
Victoria Tabacchini
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These notes are the last of the notes that cover Exam 1.
Individual and Family Development
Ronald Sabatelli
Class Notes
HDFS, 1070, UCONN, ronald, sabatelli
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Psychological/Emotional Development 2/15/16 Lecture Notes In infancy, we talk about factors that are most related to individuality and the  uniqueness of that individual. Each one of us has working models of social relationships  which influence how we structure and experience relationships with friends, family and  intimate partners. How much anxiety an individual is exposed to and how unmanaged  anxieties manifest themselves influence how people approach life, work, and  relationships with others. When an individual is under too much anxiety they  decompensate (ability to cope breaks down, behavior less adaptive, become more self  destructive and act in ways that undermine their quality of life and relationships). Every  individual has a threshold for anxiety before they become deconstructive.  Psychological and Emotional Development    Personality orientations  o There are 5 different personality traits; each one of us possesses these  traits to greater or less degrees. Ex. Could be very high in openness  why very low in conscientiousness   o Each of us to some extent are open or closed    Feelings of emotional contentment People’s Personality Differs Considerably  What accounts for these individual differences? o How we learn to cope with the anxiety in our life (extroversion and  introversion) o Paint a picture of individuals who are on a different path in terms of how  they live their lives and interact with others Big 5 Personality Traits  Openness  o Vivid imagination o Full of ideas and open to ideas  o Contemplative­ always thinking and reflecting on things o Enthusiasm for thinking and why things are happening  o Open to challenges and life  Conscientiousness  o Like order o Lists  o Always prepared o Follow a schedule/plan o If extreme: obsessive compulsive in nature  o People low in this are fine with disorder and chaos with no schedule   Extroversion o Comfortable around people o Talkative o Don’t mind being the center of attention­ enjoy it at times  o When an extrovert gets anxious, he or she manages the anxiety by  seeking out contact with people­ most comfortable when they are  talking and relating with others  o Introverts, on the other hand, are usually not comfortable around  people, not really talkative, don’t like being the center of attention  When they get anxious they tend to isolate selves from people  (like to be alone)  o Problems can occur if an extrovert and introvert are in a relationship  (friend or lover)  Agreeableness o Sympathetic o Takes time for others o Tends to be oriented towards people o Open to people’s feelings and their experiences  o When low in this, tend to not notice what other people are feeling  and doesn’t take time for others   Neuroticism o Easily disturbed o Doesn’t have a lot of space in their life for joy, even when good  things happen. Starts worrying right away about maintaining that  joy, which in turn creates less happiness.    Can’t be in the present  o Worry easily o Anticipate or expect the worst o Easily made anxious  wind up becoming disturbed, worried, self  centered (internal anxious dialogue)  Behavior and thinking compromised easily by being made  anxious  Ex. Why did she look at me that way? How come she isn’t  calling me back?  ALWAYS worrying about what others  think of him or her  People’s Sense of Well­being Differs Considerably  Life satisfaction  Contentment  Experiences of joy o How do we account for these differences?  Bowen: what goes on inside our family origin creates  contentment or anxiety which structures how one experiences  relationships and how they cope with life’s challenges   Ex. If one comes from a poorly differentiated family: patterns  and processes leave with anxiety with whether we matter and  whether we are component, which in turn creates neuroticism.  If one grows up in an environment that is high in competence,  he or she is open to new experiences and change (different  orientation than that of a person from a poorly differentiated  family) Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory  importance of ANXIETY  BASIC POINT (epigenetically rounded theory) – “Psychological development is  influenced by the anxiety that results from the unique interaction between inner  biological needs and social expectations and demands AND how this anxiety is  managed” (Sabatelli).   People are influenced by how they manage their sources of anxiety in their life.  He points to the fact that in every stage of life, there are social expectations and  environmentally imposed demands that generate anxiety for individuals. How  their personality evolves stems from how that individual deals with their anxiety  (social expectations and demands create pressures on individuals in a stage  specific way). They develop different coping mechanisms to deal with life’s  demands/tension. How that individual manages that anxiety sets a stage on how  they live their life.  o Ex. High school age: identity issues. Everyone asks where you are going  to school and what you want to do. If you figure it out, sets the stage to  moving into adulthood smoothly. But if you remain overwhelmed by that  anxiety, it is not a foundation for adulthood­ doesn’t succeed and doesn’t  have a lot of joy in their life because of this. (Stage specific sources of  anxiety)  Basic Concepts (Erikson):  Psychosocial Stages – at critical points in life we need to develop  psychological resources (personality dispositions) that impact on  subsequent/later development o Ex. Adolescence: need to develop an identity which impacts on later  development – need to develop good work ethic and have positive  outlook on it in order to function like that as an adult  Psychosocial crisis – the conflict between stage specific social expectations  and demands and psychological needs o Stage specific social expectations and demands that generate anxiety  within an individual   Adolescence: everyone tells you what you should do in college  to make money which creates a lot of stress and anxiety   Central Processes for Resolving the Crisis o Some key things that need to happen in order to resolve the crisis of  a specific stage of life—central processes are the key occurrences  that enable you to succeed with resolving a crisis  o Ex. Having the opportunity to go to college to explore and  experiment with what you want to do career­wise   Coping Behavior – “include ability to gain and process new information;  ability to maintain control over one’s emotional state; ability to move freely  within one’s environment versus anxiety about self; excessive fears;  withdrawal from relationships, and depression” (Sabatelli). o As a result of how you manage the crisis, you either get good  personality traits and dispositions or bad ones which either help or  interfere with future coping  o Erikson helps us zero in on the stage specific sources of anxiety  which challenge us to meet those challenges—provide us with  opportunities to either gain or fail to gain resources to cope  o Prime­adaptive ego qualities (good coping behavior)  Being optimistic and hopeful  Liking to be challenged  o Core Pathologies (bad coping behavior)  Interferes with the success and management with future  challenges  Ex. Procrastinate because anxious about competency—not a  good coping behavior The Psychosocial Crisis of Infancy (highlighted as important for the exam) o Psychosocial stage: Trust versus Mistrust – Why the focus on Trust? o Trust: the crisis of this period is that as you move through infancy, we expect  you to be able to trust that the people around you will understand and meet  your needs and expect you to regulate your emotions and distress in  anticipation that your needs will be met. A baby starts out stressing anxiety at  everything that creates stress in him or her (sleepy, hungry, noisy  environment­ basically cry about every stress). Initially when a baby is very  young, caretakers meet those needs regardless of the timing and situation, but, as babies move to the later stages of infancy, caretakers expect them to  regulate their emotions when they are hungry and they need a few minutes  before feeding them. This is a progressive way in which we socialize children  to regulate their emotions and trust that their needs will be met. If one doesn’t  trust that those needs will be met, they will not regulate those emotions and  keep crying.  o Central Process (resolves the crisis) – What needs to occur in order for the crisis to be successfully resolved?  Mutuality with Caregivers (in infancy this is the central process): The job of  the caretakers is to differentiate the different kinds of needs, understand those  needs, and meet those needs in order to reduce the baby’s anxieties— if this is done, the baby begins to trust the world and regulate his or her negative  emotions.  o What is needed to help babies solve the crisis with trust vs. mistrust:  When caregivers understand the needs of a child and meet those  needs, the child experiences a sense of mutuality with the caregiver.  When that happens enough of the time, the child begins to regulate  emotions better and trust and develop a set of expectations that the  world is a trustworthy place. This mutuality involves these 3 factors:   Coordination  Mismatch  Communication repairs—try something different to reduce the  anxiety  o Ex. If people observe a parent with an anxious baby, the parent tries  to coordinate their behavior with the baby’s anxiety (tries to feed it),  mismatch can occur which would mean they aren’t hungry and need  something else, so communication repair is used to find the origin of  the baby’s distress:  o How we live our lives is an outcome of our mutuality with  caregivers  Coping Behaviors  Successful coping with a crisis leads to the development of Prime Adaptive  Ego Qualities (through coordination and repair and mutuality with caregiver)  ­having a trustful outlook  o HOPE – the successful resolution of the crisis leads to people having a hopeful orientation and way of looking at the world and others  Unsuccessful coping with a crisis leads to the development of Core  Pathologies  o WITHDRAWAL (Pessimism)—in young children when they are  easily made anxious about whether they can trust in the environment, basically isolate, withdraw, and fail to engage because he or she is so caught up in their own anxiety o Reluctant to engage Life­Span Trajectory Implications?  Epigenetic assumptions o Pre­determined?   The way you are cared for by your caretaker is a pretty  accurate representation of how you will cope, interact and  develop personality­wise throughout life o Probabilistic?  You can have good attachments and relationships with parents  but still be withdrawn because of things that happen along the  way socially with others    Change requires that you better manage your anxiety with  more constructive models   Intervention: Need therapy for this (instruction and  guidance to replace negative working models with more constructive ones) Sabatelli, Ronald. “Psychological/Emotional Development.” HDFS 1070. University of  Connecticut, Storrs. 15 February 2016. Lecture.


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