Psych 2010 week of 2/8 lecture notes + 2/1 notes
Psych 2010 week of 2/8 lecture notes + 2/1 notes PSYCH 201
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lane Chloe on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 201 at Clemson University taught by Jo Jorgensen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Test 2 Week of 2/1 Nervous system- Made up of central ns and peripheral ns Central ns is divided into the brain and spinal cord Receives, stores, processes, and interprets information Also transmits information Spinal cord can act reflexively without brain input; Meninges- are the enclosing sheathes protecting the brain and spinal cord Peripheral ns is divided into the somatic and autonomic ns Somatic – voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory; there’s afferent and efferent Autonomic- there’s sympathetic and parasympathetic; involuntary nervous system, such as heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, etc. Sympathetic gives output of energy; fight or flight Parasympathetic is opposite; lowers heart rate, ends fight or flight, etc. Brain regions 1) Hind brain- contains vital functions, like breathing and heartrate; vital and small a. Medulla- breathing, circulation and unconscious behaviors b. Pons- sleep c. Cerebellum- fine muscle movement, and balance 2) Midbrain – sensory processes a. Reticular formation- for sleep and arousal 3) Forebrain – largest and most complex region; a. Thalamus – relay center for sensory integration b. Hypothalamus – basic biological functioning: hunger, thirst, temperature, pleasure center c. Hippocampus – learning and memory d. Amygdala – emotion and aggression, fear e. Cerebrum – largest and most complex part of the human brain; responsible for sensing, thinking, learning, higher order type stuff 1. Cerebral cortex 2. Cerebral hemispheres 3. Corpus callosum 4. Left side- language, verbal processing; two parts: i. Broca’s area – speech production ii. Wernicke’s area – language comprehension 5. Right side – nonverbal; music, visual recognition, spatial relationships; *see personal application* i. Specialization is limited with these two sides ii. Both sides of brain are used for all tasks iii. Experience plays a role in this iv. Brain imaging v. Controls opposite side of body 6. Lobes of cerebral cortex a. Occipital- in the back of the head; responsible for vision b. Parietal – on top of the head; somatosensory: touch, pain, etc. c. Temporal – on side of head; auditory d. Frontal- executive and motor function; higher order function i. Phineas Gage Neuron- basic structure for transmitting, receiving, and integrating nerve impulses; makes up nervous system Glia- support and nourish nervous system; can actually transmit information a little Structures of the neuron- a. Dendrite – receive info from other neurons b. Cell body – keeps neuron alive and such c. Axon – transmits info to other neurons; highway of the nervous system; myelin sheath speeds up impulses d. Synapse- where dendrite meets axon; i. Terminal button of axon ii. Synaptic cleft iii. Receptor site of dendrite e. Action potential: Electrochemical impulse; all or none; 200 mph; strength caused by rate of impulses; i. Chemicals called neurotransmitters ii. Only some receptor sites fit certain neurotransmitters iii. Endorphins- opiates; gives runner’s high; associated with heroin iv. Serotonin – deals with sleep and arousal; associated with MDMA (ecstasy): increases serotonin, but shuts off receptor sites, blocking reabsorption, so it doesn’t go anywhere. Causes body to stop making large amounts of serotonin causing subsequent depression and messes up serotonin receptors causing depression. How can genes and the environment be told apart? Identical twins- share same exact DNA Fraternal twins-share around 50 % of genome; so do parents Grandparents share 25% Cousins share 12.5% Family studies – examine bloods relatives to see how much they resemble Schizophrenia – is more likely in the relatives of schizophrenics. Twin studies – look at identical vs fraternal More similarity in IQ between identical twins than fraternal twins Adoption studies – look at the biological parents vs the adopted parents of a child; Which is he most like? Alcoholism can be an inherited predisposition Is the best of the three studies Ch. 13 Stress Response – any circumstance that is perceived to threaten one’s well-being, thereby taxing the system; Stress can be a good thing; stress was originally meant to be an adaptive survival mechanism, but humans no longer deal with the same dangers; it is for short term physical fight or flight response; Now it is the anticipation; stress is now maladaptive to the stresses of today Lifestyle is now the main cause of death; 100 ya it was infectious diseases Biopsychosocial model – physical and psychological Ellis Anticipation Appraisal- whether or not something is perceived as stressful ABC- anticipating event, believe, consequence Anger- is not a primary emotion; one must choose to be angry; one who is angry is either frustrated or hurt. They choose to get angry about it Illogical thinking Catastrophize – make a mountain out of a mole hill Overgeneralize – take a small problem and turn it into other problems; one small characteristic means overall bad Acute/ Chronic Acute- short term to a known end Chronic- long term to an unknown end Predictable/unpredictable Unpredictable stress is worse; Control A study showed that those who feel they have control feel less stressed Stress is cumulative – you can have many minor stresses and add up to a major illness 4 major types of stress 1) Frustration - a thwarted goal 2) Conflict – 2 or more incompatible motivations 1. Approach- approach: a choice between 2 attractive goals 2. Avoidance-avoidance: a choice between 2 unattractive goals 3. Approach- avoidance: a choice about a single goal with both attractive and unattractive aspects; the back and forth is called vacillation 3) Change – having to adapt to different living circumstances There is no proof that change is inherently stressful; it is the uncertainty that causes stress Death of a spouse has a stress level of 100 Divorce has a stress level of 73 Vacation has a stress level of 13 High numbered stress factors tend to be negative and measuring change, but low level is more measuring frustration 4) Pressure – To perform Or conform Hans Selye – experimented with rats to understand stress He injected some with a stress inducing chemical, and others with a placebo; both got stressed out Developed concept General Adaptation Syndrome – describes the physiological steps to the bodies reaction to stress 1) alarm – the fight or flight stage 2) Resistance – where it plateaus; people feel that they are calming down and adapting; however, their stress levels are still high, just not rising further 3) Exhaustion – body’s resources are depleted; where disease can set in; What he didn’t know is that here, the body is attacking itself! Psychosomatic disease – one with psychological origins rather than biological; like ulcers, heart attacks, etc.; not just in your head though; high blood pressure can be stress induced, but it is not just in your head; this term is kind of becoming obsolete; Biopsychosocial; Immune response – happy people don’t get sick as often Neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons Stress decreases neurogenesis. Exercise increases neurogenesis. Type a personality – competitive, impatient, hostility; there was a weak correlation with heart attacks; however, the hostility give a strong correlation. So it is unhealthy to walk around pissed off. Yerkes Dodson curve – medium stress is optimum for productivity; too low or too high is not Learned helplessness – passive behavior from unavoidable adverse events Week of 2/8 CH 5 Coping- active efforts to deal with stress Adaptive – such as exercise Maladaptive – like alcohol To deal with stress, one must 1. confront the problem directly in an active and relevant way; 2. one must be optimistic – expect good outcomes 3. If a goal is truly unattainable, STOP. Don’t beat your head against the wall. 4. Social support – friends, family, pets 5. Conscientiousness 6. Exercise – make it exercise you like; preferably aerobic; at least 20 to 30 min 3 times a week spread out 7. Reframe at the right time Consciousness – awareness of oneself and surroundings One is even somewhat aware when asleep! Biological rhythms – periodic fluctuations of the body; biological clock; Circadian rhythm – 24 hrs; even plants and insects have it! The circadian rhythm actually tends to be a little longer than 24 hrs Early bird/night owl disposition – there is a genetic component; but can be overcome or worked with Adolescents should sleep later The closer to the equator, the better you sleep Sleeping tips: Go to bed and get up at the same times every day with only a one hour deviation Best for it to be completely dark when you sleep Better in the morning to open your curtains Better to sleep in a cold place EEG pattern Beta – normal waking thought; alert problem solving Alpha – deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation Theta – light sleep Delta – deep sleep 4 stages of sleep 1. 1-7 min. theta waves; hypnic jerks 2. Longer; sleep spindles: scrunched waves 3. 3 and 4 Slow wave sleep – delta waves 4. REM sleep – rapid eye movement; where dreaming occurs; “paradoxical sleep”; your brain is awake, but your body is asleep; 20-25% of time is in REM Takes a total of around 90 minutes 8hrs interrupted does not equal 8 hrs uninterrupted If deprived of REM, REM rebound will occur; it will begin sooner and occur longer SWS rebound Benefits of sleep Memory consolidation happens better with good sleep Neurogenesis is increased by sleep Creativity is increased Health problems are lessened Ch 4 Sensation – stimulation of sense organs Perception – making sense of sensation Sensory adaptation – a decline in sensitivity due to long stimulation We rarely adapt to intense stimuli; this is a survival mechanism We also do not usually adapt to visual stimuli Peak-end rule- the peak and end of an experience plays a larger subjective role. Some people were put in a horror movie it was scary, but they were also put in a docile movie with a terrifying peak and end. They thought the second was scarier They did the same type of thing with a colonoscopy; How we see color There are two types of receptors in the eye: rods and cones 1) Rods are good for peripheral and night vision 2) Cones are for color vision and acuity in lighter environments The center of the retina is the fovea; it is composed entirely of cones 1) Trichromatic theory – 3 types of cones: red, green, and blue Like projection Color blind Only one problem with the theory 2) Opponent Process theory Cones that sees red or green, blue or yellow, and black or white; After image: image that persists after a visual stimulus Perceptual Processes – how we see forms Proximity – elements that are close to one another tend to be grouped together Closure – Viewers tend to supply missing elements to close or complete a familiar figure Similarity – elements that are similar tend to be grouped together Simplicity – Viewers tend to organize elements in the simplest way possible Continuity – viewers tend to see elements in ways that produce smooth continuation Bottom up – sensation Top down – memory and expectations Perceptual Constancy – even if an image changes in one’s retina, the brain perceives it as constant Depth and distance perception – 1) Binocular – can tell depth and distance with two eyes Binocular depth cues – cues needing both eyes Retinal disparity – the slight difference in the visual field between the right and left eyes < 25ft Convergence – eyes turn inward 2) Monocular – can tell depth and distance with one eye p. 467-469 Problems in the night: sleep disorders 159-162 p. 118-119 perceiving forms patterns and objects p. 467-469
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