Psych 2010 test 3 Feb 10-26
Psych 2010 test 3 Feb 10-26 PSYCH 201
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lane Chloe on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 201 at Clemson University taught by Jo Jorgensen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 02/14/16
T est 3 Behaviorism – studies observed behavior Learning – any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge from experience Classical conditioning – reflexive responses Learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Pavlov’s dogs Food makes a dog salivate: Unconditioned stimulus causes unconditioned response The bell is a conditioned stimulus causing a conditioned response 1) Acquisition – the initial stage of learning something Stimulus contiguity – must occur together in time and space 2) Extinction – gradual weakening and disappearance of the conditioned response Renewal effect – if the response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired than it will reappear in the original environment 3) Spontaneous recovery – reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus 4) Stimulus generalization – After learning a stimulus response, the organism responds in the same way to a new stimulus that is similar to the original 5) Stimulus discrimination – After learning a stimulus response, the organism does not respond in the same way to a new stimulus that is similar to the original 6) Higher order conditioning – conditioned stimulus functions as an unconditioned stimulus when paired with a new conditioned stimulus Operant conditioning – voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences 1) Reward – event following a response increases tendency Positive Reward – behavior goes up; increases behavior by giving something in return; Ex. Getting candy for exceptional behavior (bad idea btw; causes eating disorders) Negative Reward – behavior goes up; increases behavior by taking something away; Ex. Not having to do chores for exceptional behavior 2) Punishment – decreases tendency Positive Punishment – decreases behavior by giving negative consequence; Ex. Spanking (not a great idea; ineffective and acquaints children with violence); Negative Punishment – decreases behavior by taking something away; Ex. Timeout *Don’t bribe kids! It shifts control from the disciplinarian to the person being disciplined Important considerations for all of these Action that immediately follows is the reinforcer The sooner the consequence follows a response, the greater its effect Punishment can be rewarding; it gives children attention Different rewards and punishments work for different people Logical consequences – let the punishment fit the crime Premack Principle – One activity can reinforce another. If you like math and hate chemistry, you are going to prioritize math and procrastinate chemistry. This causes one to inadvertedly punish oneself and kill one’s love for math by doing chemistry right after math. Primary reward – biological; food, water, sex Secondary reward – learned; money Primary Punishment – inherently unpleasant; getting stabbed, burned alive Secondary Punishment – learned; speeding ticket Reward works better than punishment Bias – Sports Illustrated Curse: If your picture is on the cover of sports illustrated, you are going to go downhill. Scientific term: Regression to the mean: basically, there is nowhere to go but down People think punishment works better, because kids are punished when they are at their worst, so they have nowhere to go but up; they can sink no lower. Hot Stove Rule – Punish the wrongdoer immediately, consistently, impersonally, and moderately and in a way that fits the crime. Also – punishment should be nonphysical; punish privately (and praise publicly); explain why the wrongdoer is being punished to the wrongdoer Principles of operant 1) Acquisition – acquire a new behavior 2) Extinction – weakening and disappearance of a behavior; can be dependent on environment 3) Stimulus generalization – See classical conditioning 4) Stimulus discrimination – see classical 5) Discriminative stimulus – cues that tell the probability of a consequence 6) Shaping – reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior Reinforcement schedules – 1) Continuous – every time the designated response occurs, it is reinforced; fastest 2) Intermittent – reinforced only some of the time; most difficult to get rid of: strong resistance to extinction 1. Fixed ratio – reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses 2. Variable ratio – reinforcement given after a variable number of responses; most difficult to extinguish 3. Fixed interval – reinforce for the first response after a fixed time interval has elapsed 4. Variable interval – reinforced for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed 3) Neutral – neither Observational learning – learn by observing others CH 7 3 key processes in memory 1) Encoding – getting the information into memory; done through attention Attention – focusing your awareness on a narrow range of stimuli Divided attention – trying to pay attention to two or more simultaneous messages; people can’t actually do this; People suck at multitasking A person can only handle one attention consuming task at a time Cocktail party phenomenon – overhearing other conversations and such when they use your name Can you listen to music and study at the same time? Not with words. Extroverts can listen to lyricless music but usually introverts cannot There can be only one stream of language in a person’s head at a time You cannot watch tv at the same time; it’s a back and forth When holding a phone, you are 4x more likely to die while driving; however, hands free is still 3x more likely, so it does not solve the cognitive problem entirely When texting you are 25x more likely to die while driving! Worse than DUI!!! 3 levels of encoding 1. Structural (shallow) – physical structure 2. Phonemic (intermediate) – word sounds 3. Semantic (deep) – meaning According to levels of processing theory, the deeper the encoding the longer lasting the memory Enhancing encoding Elaboration – think of an example Self-referent encoding – how does it relate to you; Ex. You remember a dog’s name because it is the same name as your aunt’s dog Visual imagery – use visuals to represent words; concrete words are easier to remember than abstract ones; Link method – linking images together Method of loci – associate images with certain locations Dual coding theory – visual + semantic = better memory! 2) Storage 3 box model of memory Sensory memory – ¼ sec attention Short-term memory – also called working memory Limited temporary storage that allows manipulation; 20 sec w/out rehearsal Limited capacity of a 4 more or less objects Chunking – grouping stimuli as a single unit Working memory has 4 functions Phonological loop – maintenance rehearsal Central executive – divides attention Visuospatial sketchpad – manipulates data and imagery Episodic buffer – recalls things from long-term storage and puts stuff into long-term Long-term memory Unlimited capacity over lengthy periods of time Flashbulb memory – an unusually vivid memory Emotion People are overconfident in their accuracy 3) retrieval p. 202 p187-8 VariableImporting data from an excel file Variable=xlsread (‘Workbook.xlsx’,’Sheetname’) Default behavior: Load the data in the first sheet Clemson=xlsread(‘WinterWeather.xlsx’); Reading from different worksheets: Clemson2012=xlsread(‘WinterWeather.xlsx’,’2012’); [DataVar,TextVar]=xlsread (‘Workbook.xlsx’,’SheetName’) DataVar: All numerical values in excel TextVar: All text values in excel Home > Variable > Import Data Select workbook or text file (.txt) from list OR select workbook from current folder directory list Assume A= [1,2,3,4] is a defined workspace Xlswrite(‘File.xlsx’,A) Creates an excel file containing array A Logic and operationals and & or greater than > less than < equal == Greater than or equal to >= Less than or equal to <= not equal to ~= if to ask question Then what to do if true else then what to do if false