GWS 103 Week 3 of Lecture, Reading, Discussion Notes, & Quizlets
GWS 103 Week 3 of Lecture, Reading, Discussion Notes, & Quizlets GWS 103
Popular in Women & Their Bodies in Health and Disease
Popular in Women and Gender studies
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
ANTH 1101 - 002
verified elite notetaker
This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by alexrinehart on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GWS 103 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Araceli Alonso in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Women & Their Bodies in Health and Disease in Women and Gender studies at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
Reviews for GWS 103 Week 3 of Lecture, Reading, Discussion Notes, & Quizlets
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/14/16
Reading for Monday, February 1 st WH p 234-244. Fetal Development. o Table 10-2. Stages of fetal development Embryonic or germinal stage. Weeks 1 and 2 Embryonic stage Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Fetal Stage Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 Second Trimester Week 16 Week 20 Week 24 Third Trimester Week 28 Week 32 Week 36 Week 38 Week 40 o Sex Determination There are X and Y sperm, and which type of sperm that fertilizes the egg, determines the sex. Eggs bind preferably to y bearing sperm Men who smoke are more likely to father female children o Development of the reproductive system The early embryo is anatomically neither male nor female. The gonads, two sets of ducts, and external structures remain undifferentiated for the first few weeks of embryonic development. The future external genitals begin development in the fourth week o Female Differentiation Gene sequences trigger the formation of follicles in the developing ovary. ROBO and SPLIT genes o Male Differentiation Differentiation of the gonads into the testes is earlier than ovary development SRY gene o Differentiation of the External Genitalia The genital tubercle become the clitoris in females and the penis in males Sexual differentiation is completed by the 12th week o Chromosomal Disorders Chromosomal abnormalities can occur as early as meiosis o A Sample of Aneuploidies Trisomies 47 instead of 46 Mental and physical abnormalities The most common is down syndrome 3 copies of c21 o Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Zygotes need at least 1 x to survive o Teratogens and Congenital Abnormalities Teratogens are agents that can induce damage to the developing embryo and cause birth defects or congenital abnormalities o Medications as Teratogens A-no teratogen effects X-risk outweighs the benefits of taking the drug o Microbes as Teratogens Several microbes have the ability to cross the placenta and damage the fetus o Alcohol Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Now FASD - Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder o Tobacco Potential teratogen o Endocrine Disruptors BPA and phthalates WH p 167-168. "Male and Female Hormones Revisited." o Male hormones Androgens o Female hormones Estrogens o Men and women have the same hormones but they vary in amount o You cannot simply measure the amounts of each to determine male or female because they vary so much all of the time 2 WH p 169-172. "Coming to terms with transgenderism and transsexuality." o Sex v gender o Terms within the community WH "The Five Sexes Revisited" p 189-193 o Cheryl Chase was going to speak in front of the LWPES about the patient side of intersex correction surgery. o 5 sex system Male, female, herms, merms, and ferms. Controversial o We try to act like we are a perfectly dimorphic species. People who are born out of the biological genital norms, are intersexual. o Intersexual conditions are not diseases o Physicians should avoid irreversible assignments Intersex Genitalia Illustrated and Explained o Wide spectrum of forms o Diagram of original genital form before differentiation Homologous sex structures o Aphallia The first two sections of the embryonic genitalia do not develop. Usually only actually pointed out in XY people w/ testicles Even though it occurs equally in those with ovaries Doctors usually give these children sex reassignment surgery to remove the testes and create a vagina "Normal" for a female is the capability of receiving a penis in a vagina, not sexual pleasure. Fertility is sacrificed without consent o Microphallus 3 If the male sex organs are too small, the doctors will perform reassignment surgery. Fertility is sacrificed without consent If the testes are normal, the child will likely be treated with testosterone injections and go through puberty as a toddler. o Clitoromegaly When a female child has a large phalloclitoris, it is deemed a birth defect. Perform surgery to reduce to a "normal" size Can impair sensation o Chordee The head of the phalloclitoris bends down in typical "female" development, but when this happens in a male assigned person, it is termed "simple chordee." Surgery can damage sensation in the penile head. o Diphallia 4 If the genitals develop along male lines but the two sides do not fuse, there will be two separate phalloclitori, side by side, and each has its own testis. Doctors will remove the smaller one It is considered male but really it is between male and female development. o Hypospadias 5 Physical statuses in which a child develops external testes while sections 2 and 3 of the phalloclitoris develop atypically. The urethra is closer to the female location and there may be some vaginal tissue. Usually assigned male and rarely are called intersex o Vaginal Agenesis External genitalia, which appear to female, are formed but only creates a shallow vagina May have no gonads, or may have ovaries but no uterus, or ovaries and a atypical uterus. Need hormones to create other female bodily features o Female Pseudohermaphroditism/Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia External genitalia develop as a typical male but the individual has a uterus and ovaries and the scrotum is empty Even though this is definitely intersex, doctors say they are actually female. Try to say these people should be reassigned female at birth o Male Pseudohermaphroditism/Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome 6 External is female form but they lack a uterus and have internal testes instead of ovaries Bodies don’t respond to testosterone, so they will have feminine features at puberty. No periods Usually raised as girls and doctors try to convince the parents to get the testes removed o Those Not Pictured There are XX men and XY women who are not visibly distinct in their bodily forms from those with typical chromosomes There are many people with XXY chromosomes Typical male configuration but small testes Can be infertile or develop substantial breasts Can have an x and no other chromosome Never develop gonads Intermediate ovotestis, or can have both. Goes unnoticed Atypical sex steroid balance between the feminizing hormones and masculinity hormones People with typical female genitals can have more body and facial hair, muscle mass, balding, and libido. Typical male - breast tissue, curvaceous hips, etc. People who produce low sex steroids and who do not change much at puberty Sex steroid therapy "Five Myths that Hurt Intersex People" o Myth 1: Intersex people all have intermediate genitalia Intersex can be internal or the person was operated on as an infant Fetishes toward intersex people o Myth 2: Intersex conditions are always diagnosed in infancy Not everyone is diagnosed as a child 7 People sometimes will be hostile and not believe the diagnoses o Myth 3: All infant sex-assignment surgery is aimed at creating "female" genitalia This myth leaves people to be skeptical about intersex male assigned peoples o Myth 4: Intersex people should be genderqueer Pressures them on a societal level when they already are pressured by doctors o Myth 5: "Real" intersex people are not genderqueer A hurtful myth spread by their own community Pressure from people that they are supposed to relate to "Trans and Intersex Children: Forced Sex Changes, Chemical Castration, and Self-Determination" o Trans and intersex people are in pain after not having a say over their own bodies o Transphobes and backers of intersex "corrective" surgery also focus on medical intervention into children's bodies Heroic for intersex and horrific for trans o The issue is the question if self-determination, of autonomy. o Intersex people who went through Intersex Genital Mutilation suffer from absent or reduced sexual sensation Can also loose fertility, have chronic problems with bladder infections, and grow up not identifying to their assigned sex o Trans people refer to the 20s as too old because its post-puberty Could have avoided puberty Bodily changes that can never be changed Need drugs that push off puberty o Doctors scare families with societal pressures 8 Lecture Monday, February 1 st I WAS ABSENT BUT my TA went over all of the slides with me. Sex differentiation in humans o Process in male and female development from an undifferentiated zygote o Zygote: union of 46 chromosomes Zygote: o 23 from sperm (23rd chromosome x or y) o 23 for ovum (23rd chromosome always x) o If the 23rd pair of chromosomes has y = xy male o If the 23rd pair has a x = xx female o Combination of sex chromosomes will determine sex at the moment of conception (fertilization) When the zygote develops 6-8 cells (4 days) = morula When the morula reaches around 16 cells, is known as blastocyst 13-14 days after fertilization: the blastocyst reaches 70-100 cells = embryo 3 weeks after fertilization: the embryo is about 1/12" with a long and thin segmented end 4-7 weeks after fertilization: the embryo is about 1/2" long, keeps developing After 8 weeks of fertilization, the embryo becomes a fetus Although chromosomal sex is determined at the moment of conception, there is no essential external sex differentiation until week 12 The embryo is bipotential: o Has the ability to become either male or female But the embryo is programmed to be female Female development occurs naturally (nothing extra needed) Embryonic Development o 4th week of intrauterine life Intrauterine - after implantation into the uterus o External pre-structures: Genital tubercle Labioscrotal swelling Urogenital folds Urogenital groove By the 8th week (4th is blank) o Prestructure Female Male Genital Tubercle Clitoris Not differentiated Labioscrotal Labia majora Not swelling differentiated Urogenital folds Labia minora Not differentiated Urogenital Groove closes - except urinary and Not groove vaginal openings differentiated By the 12th week o Pre-structure Female Male Genital tubercle Clitoris Glans of penis Labioscrotal Labia majora Scrotum swelling Urogenital folds Labia minora Shaft of penis Urogenital Groove closes - except urinary opening, Groove groove vaginal opening closes Internal Pre-Structures: o About 4th week of intrauterine life, the primordial germ cells develop o About the 6th week, they migrate to their permanent location and are called Gonads o By the 7th week, the gonads consist of two parts: Outside (cortex) Inside (medulla) o Close to the gonads, there is one pair of ducts called Woffian Ducts o Alongside the Wolffian Ducts there is another pair of ducts called the Mullerian Ducts o By the 7th week, the embryo is still undifferentiated! o By the 4th week (blank) o By the 8th week Pre-structure Female Mal e Gonads Ovaries Wolffian Will regress Ducts Mullerian Fallopian tubes, upper 2 Ducts vagina, uterus o By the 10th week Pre- Female Male structure Gonads Ovaries Testes Wolffian Will regress Vas Ducts defrens Mullerian Fallopian tubes, upper Will Ducts vagina, uterus regress For male differentiation: o Y chromosome in the cells: TDF (Testis Determining Factor-DNA protein of the Y chromosome) Androgen-testosterone (testis) Mullerian duct inhibitor (testis) Inhibition of female development The medulla will develop while the cortex will deteriorate-testicular formation o Testes will develop and secret Mullerian Duct Inhibitor (MRF- Mullerian Factor) that will cause the regression of the Mullerian Duct. Testosterone (androgen) will be secreted and converted into DHT (hydrotestosteron) that will cause the "masculinization" of the external genitalia. o External male development will occur if androgen receptors are present In Female Differentiation: o No y chromosome o The medulla degenerates and the cortex develops into the ovaries o No hormones involved. Nothing "extra." o In a "normal" XX female, the mullerian ducts will develop and become the fallopian tubes. 3 Reading for Wednesday, February 3 rd BW Chapter 1 "Why Biology of Women?" p 1-14 o Intro Women are distinct from their male counterparts Not just in their reproductive systems Their brains function differently Experience things differently Etc. Reasons for the differences: Physiological variations due to the genes on the x chromosome The x chromosomes contain 1100 genes that are not found on the Y chromosome Since a woman has 2 X chromosomes, one gets deactivated by random. Genetic variability since the maternal or paternal genes can be deactivated. Hormonal influences on gene expression Cultural and social structures can also play a role in the expression of bio. Differences. Sex and gender are not the same thing. Genetically: two sexes XX = female XY = male Gender relies on sex, biological factors, and social influences. Women in science: Wise woman The herbalist who treated the illnesses of friends , neighbors, and family. Midwifery Attending women during childbirth The rise of the Christian church of Europe coincided w/ decline in rights, position, and education of women. History of science related to women Abbess Hildegard von Bingen Ignác Semmelweis Albert Hayes Margaret Sanger o Women in Medicine Acceptance of education for women went back and forth. People continued fighting for reproductive rights into the Women's Rights Movement of the 19th Century. The amount of women in medical school now has increased so much compared to 20 years ago. o The Last Century Menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause were treated in the west as illnesses to be managed through medications and procedures. Women have been treated w hormones for birth control, menopause, or to prevent miscarriage but many women do not even know about the potential risks. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) has risks Federal guidelines now protect human subjects from being used without their knowledge or consent in clinical investigations of drugs or medical devices. Breast Cancer Awareness in the 80s and 90s Was not talked about before this time The Society for the Advancement of Women's Health Research Nonprofit Established in 1990 Involved with the establishment of the Journal of Women's Health o Language of Medicine A familiarity with the language of medicine/science can contribute to more informed decisions. The scientific community tries to keep bias out of the conclusions that are reached. Double blind Placebo Pseudoscience Pseudo = false o Guidelines for Evaluating Scientific Information Make sure you're using a reliable source Peer reviewed are the most reliable journals Make sure the person who funded the research is not profiting in some way If the study was repeated, were the results similar? Large sample sizes are generally more reliable than small. It is also important that the subjects were randomly selected. How was the study run to keep bias out? o Conclusion 2 The more women understand their bodies and their health, the better they can monitor themselves and take steps to intervene if things go wrong. WH "Sexism in Women's Medical Care" p 4-8 o Intro Women are sent to therapists too often instead of looking thoroughly for the actual problem. Can lead to untreatable, worsened, or even deadly conditions since physicians put off the treatment. 93 and 97 percent of doctors and gynecologists are male. o Socialization of women as Patients Women patients are too submissive and passive with their male physicians. Reduces the patients sense of autonomy Medical jargon and disregard for patients' concerns results in ineffective care. Some doctors even believe that women are not capable of making their own health decisions, and this leads the doctor to keeping information from their female patients. o Socialization of Doctors Medical schools teach discrimination against women as patients through lack of focus on diseases specific to women, in misogynic comparisons made between male and female patients with similar health problems, and in instructions regarding the appropriate behavior of doctors toward women patients. Sexist textbooks Biased, sexist ads for drugs o Contraceptive Methods Women should have the right to make a free and informed choice about contraceptives. Uninformed about the risks of forms of contraceptives o Estrogen Use in Menopause Uterine cancer used to be rare As the use of estrogen care increased, uterine cancer became more common Women are taking estrogen due to big social pressures o Psychoactive Drugs 1 to 2 million people in the US have abuse problems with prescription drugs Chemical support systems for unfulfilling life situations Doctors learn about psychoactive drugs from drug companies, not from medical school. WH "From Grass-Roots Activism to Professional Agendas." p 41-46 o Social Movements and Social Change 3 Grass roots and professional groups are different. o Rise and Development of the Women's Health Movement The assumption was that physicians (likely male) were the experts and their female patients were to do as told. Laywomen asserted that personal, subjective knowledge of one's own body was a valid source of information and deserved recognition, not scorn. o … Basically, grass roots movements were very important in starting up the women's health movement. Now grassroots remain important forces that people trust. Professional organizations face competition due to institutions that claim expertise in women's health. These organizations need to reach out to all women now, not just a certain group of women. WH "Tales out of medical school" p 67-70 o Basically talks about how medical school teaches sexism but also practices sexism. o There were very few female students, and they didn't get taught the same as the men. Often ignored Looked at as maids WH "Diagnosing Gender Disparities in Health Care" p 8-10 o The coverage of health insurance plans on female reproductive health is set up to make the woman avoid future care. o Some plans do not cover contraceptive, or emergency contraceptive, or abortions. o Women are more likely to suffer from mental health, but a lot of health insurance does not cover mental health. o About half of women between the age of 19 and 24 aren't insured at all. o Women ignore their well being for their career, etc. Learn@UW "Our Family Secrets" o Really uncomfortable stories about doctors and their patients 4 Lecture Wednesday, February 3rd Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasya o XX (chromosomally female) o Increase of androgens but no MRF Mullerian duct will develop to form the uterus, upper vagina, and fallopian tubes o "Normal" female internally o "Ambiguous" external genitalia or completely male Probably raised as a male Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (testicular feminization syndrome) o XY (chromosomally male) o Androgens may be present, but not receptors of androgens o Externally female development o Mo menstruation at puberty o Vagina will not develop o Testes develop (undescended) o Probably raised as a female Discussion Wednesday, February 3rd Vocab o Zygote The union of the chromosomes o Morula 6-8 cells Stage of development o Blastocyst 8-16 cells Stage ' ' o Embryo Stage ' ' 4-8 weeks o Fetus Stage ' ' Post 8 weeks o Genital tubercle Clitoris at 8 weeks Glans of the penis at 12 weeks o Labioscrotal swelling Labia majora at 8 weeks Scrotum at 12 weeks o Urogenital grooves Groove closes at 8 weeks Grove closes for males at 12 weeks o Urogenital Folds Labia minora at 8 weeks for female Shaft of penis at 12 weeks for male o Mullerian ducts Fallopian tubes, upper vagina, and uterus in female at 8 weeks Will regress at 10 weeks in males o Wolffian ducts Will regress in females at 8 weeks Vas defrens at 10 weeks in males o Cortex Outside of the gonads at week 7 One of two parts of the gonads o Medulla Inside of the gonads at week 7 One of the two parts of the gonads o Testis determination factor Protein from the Y chromosome to develop testis o Mullerian Regression factor o Testosterone 2 Quizlets for BW Ch Why Biology of Women? https://quizlet.com/_20apm3 password: week3 Quizlet for important terms from my discussion https://quizlet.com/_20aqx8 password: week3
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'