Hist1020 WWI notes Feb 11
Hist1020 WWI notes Feb 11 World history II
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to World history II at Auburn University taught by Dr. Cathleen Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see World History 2C in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
World War I 1 W ORLD W AR I: C AUSES AND R ESULTS The inventor of spinning jenny was hargraves Robert smith discussed impact of ind rev pollution on rain water and enviro Know the books Study Questions I. Discuss four causes of WWI II. What was the Schlieffen Plan and was it successful? III. What did Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” call for? IV. What were three main parts of the Treaty of Versailles? I. Intro to WWI A. Sides that fought against each other a. Triple Entente: France, England, Russia until 1917, USA starting 1917 i. This started the USA emerging as a world power b. Triple Alliance: Germany, Austro-Hungary (Habsburg Monarchy), Italy until 1915 i. These were in the middle of Europe and they had enemies on opposite sides of it. ii. Germany was surrounded. B. Origins of WWI a. Very complicated and a number of causes. II. Study Question 1 (I): Discuss four causes of WWI. A. French and Germany national hostility a. Unification of Germany led to long hostility but worsened with the Franco-Prussian war and then unified Germany in 1871. i. Unification of Germany was announced in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles which was of much French national pride. ii. The French were very insulted and resentful iii. When Germany was finally unified (end of FP war), France lost helping Germany unify and because they lost, they had to pay reparations to new unified Germany 1. Reparations: monies that have to be paid by losing power to make things right for any damage during the war. 2. They had to pay a small amount but they weren’t happy about it. iv. France had to give a piece of its territory according to peace terms. 1. This part was Alsace-Lorraine. Even more resentment now. B. Crisis of values a. European society has been going through rapid changes and this was leaving Europeans anxious and insecure; very psychologically unsettled. b. Increasingly losing religious values; crisis of religious values i. An outgrowth of industrial revolution c. During 19 cent, Christianity experienced a crisis when people questioned validity of teachings in church. d. Losing moral compass i. Right vs. wrong values e. Evidence: i. Friedrich Nietzsche wrote the Happy Science in 1882. 1. Very famous statement: “God is dead” aka the people have killed him. 2. When this statement was made, it wasn’t that he hated religion and that it is silly fluff; he was saying that in his view, Europeans were losing their faith in God and losing their sense in right and wrong. ii. Eduard Munch painted The Scream, 1893 1. Expression of spiritual anguish at end of 19 cent. 2. Decline of faith in European society. iii. Henri Massis and Alfred de Tarde wrote The Young people of Today in 1913 1. They reported on the results of a survey in French Paris University students on eve of WWI. a. What do they think on the current day in age i. Boredom ii. Lack of direction iii. A crisis of values 2. What they felt was a solution to end crisis of values and this solution was a call for war to end boredom, motivate and restore values in European society and war is what they got. C. Race for empire a. Particularly in Africa b. “New” imperialism from previous notes. c. Berlin congress 1885 as evidence D. Serbian national hostility towards Austria-Hungary a. Habsburg monarchy in 1867 became known as Austria-Hungary b. Serbians are Slavic speaking group in southeastern Europe i. Language and culture is the same as that of Russia ii. Very strong nthionalist movement iii. Near end 19 cent, they were given their own independent kingdom of Serbia. 1. Some lived here and other Serbs lived in Bosnia- Herzegovina. a. Capital if Bosnia-Herzegovina (BH) is Sarajevo 2. 1878 AH gained control over BH. Kingdom of Serbia thought BH belonged to them because of its population and wanted all Serbs to live in same state. They were very angry. iv. Serbian nationalists made an organization for one single Serbian state 1. The most famous of them are Unity or Death (Black Hand) 2. This was dedicated to bringing about a strong national state to get all Serbs in one border. 3. They weren’t afraid to use violence. 4. This was an illegal organization so they met in secret. c. June 28, 1914 i. This is they day when famous couple made trip to Sarajevo: Arch Duke Franc Ferdinand and his wife ii. He was the second most powerful aristocrat in AH. He was supposed to become next emperor but that didn’t happen. iii. He and his wife were assassinated, shot to death. iv. The assassin: Gavrilo Princip a member of the Black Hand v. This began WWI’s triggered vi. AH was furious. In retaliation, AH prepared to go to war against Serbia. vii. Before this, they received a promise from Germany: they gave them the famous blank check. 1. The blank check: a promise to unconditionally support war effort against Serbia (July, 1914) 2. The terms of triple alliance was a reason they were willing to do this 3. They were also willing due to a battle plan the German government had developed known as the Schlieffen Plan. d. Physical location made many tensions III. Study Question 2 (II): What was the Schlieffen Plan and was it successful? A. Schlieffen plan!!!!!! a. A plan developed by German military b. Created in 1905 c. This is a plan for quickly winning a two front war against both France and Russia (Germany sits between enemies) d. If Germany wanted to win, they needed this plan. e. This argued that once war broke out between the triples, first Germany would take all military might against France because Russia would take a long time to mobilize. Once France was defeated in 5-6 weeks, Germany could take troops and defeat Russia. This is premised on the thought that Russia would take a long time to mobilize for war. f. Once France was knocked out and troops were turned towards Russia, it would only take 2-3 months, Germany would win and be victorious. g. August 4, 1914 the day WWI began i. All members declared war against each other and officially at war ii. Germany immediately put plan into action and ran into a problem right away: it was dependent on Russia taking a long time for war. iii. Russian troops quickly mobilized. This meant Germany couldn’t concentrate in France, it had to split troops. They didn’t have the knockout power against France that the plan said. iv. The war ended up lasting 4 years: tremendous death toll and human suffering. Highest death rate euros had seen up to that time. h. WWI said 10 mil died in battle, another 7 mill civilian deaths in only 4 years. i. Technologies of industrial revolution helped make death toll possible such as maxim gun and chemical weapons j. Ended Nov 11, 1918. k. The Triple Entante won WWI i. Helped USA rise to be a world power. ii. France, Britain, and USA got to determine peace settlement l. Peace settlement: i. Got together in Paris, started Jan 1919. This is known as the Peace of Paris. ii. Peace of Paris important treaties: 1. Treaty of St. Germain: determined fate of AH. a. These had a set of principles with guidelines for what they would look like. Guidelines used: Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points 2. Treaty of Versailles IV. Study Question 3 (III): What did Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” call for? A. Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points a. President Woodrow Wilson and his fourteen points i. Wilson was president from 1913-1921 ii. Had peace guidelines for end of WWI iii. Announced Fourteen Points in Jan 1918 (WWI hadn’t ended yet) iv. Called for creation of nation-states: called for one national group, homogenous in composition. v. Used this for Treaty of St. Germain: this meant breaking up of AH and radically redrew borders of Europe. 1. AH broken up into many states after WWI 2. One problem: states created out of AH, most weren’t ethnically homogenous. Czechoslovakia was highly multicultural and Yugoslavia was even more multicultural so principle of nation-state really wasn’t applied creating problems contributing to WWII. 3. Establishment of democracies in Europe. a. Democracy to Wilson: a democracy must have 3 characteristics: i. Universal adult suffrage ii. Must have parliaments that make laws of the land iii. Must have multi-party rule. 4. Democracy is opposite of authoritarianism a. Authoritarianism!!!!!!! Modern term from 20 cent, a label for a type of government common in world in 20 cent. They have first two characteristics of democracy. It breaks away from democracy in that it has single party rule. i. Universal adult suffrage ii. Parliament that passes laws of land iii. Single party rule b. By the start of WWII, only one country stayed a democracy. i. By 1938, only Czechoslovakia was a democracy, the rest were authoritarianism. ii. Treaty of St. Germain broke AH and made new states. c. Treaty of Versailles covered what would happen to Germany. i. Germany was not a new state carved into Europe after WWI. ii. Capitol before WWI was Berlin, after it was Weimar. iii. Weimar Republic was the new name of Germany after WWI. 1. Got this name because of shift in government after WWI 2. Was a constitutional monarchy, after it no longer had a monarchy and was ruled by a parliament or a republic. 3. Just days before WWI monarchy was dissolved voluntarily by King William II (king from 1888- 1918) a. He gave up his thrown and power in hope of receiving easy peace terms. b. Hopes were greatly disappointed. 4. Terms of treaty of Versailles gave very harsh peace terms V. Study Question 4 (IV): What were three main parts of the Treaty of Versailles? A. Three main part of the Treaty of Versailles a. Part I: centered around Article 231 (War guilt clause) i. Article 231: Germany must accept full responsibility to causing WWI and all the damage and destruction. ii. This led to deep resentment b. Part 2: reparations i. Monies paid to make amends for causing war to pay for damages by Germany ii. The amounts under the Treaty of Versailles was enormous for Germans. ($33 bill in 1919 terms). The amount they paid for losing WWI was the equivalent of 96,000 tons of gold. iii. A leading British economist warned the world that this was too high; so high it would cause havoc to German economy that would spill into Europe and rest of the war. iv. John Maynard Keynes wrote The Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1919. This was a warning to the world. c. Part 3: military might of Germany i. Severely reduced; German army must be reduced to 100,000 officers and men because they didn’t want them strong enough. This was a huge reduction from 11 mill men during the war and still 6 mill men after the war in the army. ii. What will these men do when the army is reduced? iii. German navy was reduced to 6 ships and no subs. iv. Also have to give back Alsace-Lorraine. v. Contributed to a ton of dissatisfaction within the Weimar republic and this helped Hitler and Nazi party rise to power.
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