Music History Semester 3 Notes for Week of Feb 22
Music History Semester 3 Notes for Week of Feb 22 MUSI 30623
Popular in Music History: 20th Century
Popular in Music
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miku Stone on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 30623 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. William Gibbons in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Music History: 20th Century in Music at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Chp. 26 of Crawford's American Life George M. Cohan-wrote I Want to Hear a Yankee Doodle Tune. Cohan's You're A Grand Old Flag led to the establishment of college fight songs as intercollegiate athletics became more prominent. His songs do not name a specific enemy. Opera in early 1900s still supplied some melodies Americans sang, played, and listened to. Most glamorous musical genre available and general public's common culture. Opera can also be grounds for social exclusion. Opera repertoire is still exclusively European (mostly Italian and French) and the star singers were European as well 1883-Metropolitan Opera opened. Backed by wealthy patrons, firm financial footing by end of 1880s. 1906-caught in San Francisco earthquake. Costumes, instruments, and other supplies lost. Opera repertoire in US resembles symphony orchestra. Classic works instead of new ones. Opera means sex, violence, drama, and spectacle. Salome by Richard Strauss. Premiered at Metropolitan Opera in New York (1907) Wilde-convicted and sentenced to prison being a homosexual Merry Widow-Franz Lehar. Debuted in NY in 1907. Plot: prince is supposed to marry a rich widow so that he can help out his poor country. He falls in love with her eventually not for money. Victor Herbert-Born in Ireland. Very opposite from Charles Ives. Played cello in Metropolitan Opera and New York Phil. Founded American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. Broadway-focuses on concerns/fantasies of plain American people. Giulio Gatti-Casazza-manager of Metropolitan Opera. Under him, company produced only seventeen new American works. Popular musical shows from first 2 decades of 20th century are not performed today. However, few songs still well known such as Yankee Doodle Boy, You're a Grand Old Flag, Over There (WWI song). Grand Old Flag-appealed b/c of rising nationalism in late 19th Century. Journalism was very local, national mass media was nonexistent. U.S. post office only national institution that really made a big impact on American lives. Sons of American Revolution and Daughters of American Revolution founded resulting in the U.S. flag being praised more and more. Pledge of Allegiance created and Americans wanted to make The Star Spangled Banner the national anthem. White middle-class individuals really supported these nationalistic measures. Spanish-American War-foreign wars fuel patriotic feelings. Operetta-comic opera. Dominates popular musical stage. African American Music Will Marion Cook-Born in Washington D.C., attended Oberlin. Based songs on syncopated rhythm of coon song. Black shows on Broadway lost momentum in 2nd decade due to death of several stars, success of motion pictures (theaters running black shows switched to running movies), and the hiring of an African American by a white producer. W.C. Handy-Alabama-born trumpet player, bandleader, composer, and music publisher Known as "the Father of the Blues." Started listening more carefully to local tunes. 1912-published Memphis Blues 1914-St. Louis Blues Scott Joplin-Born in 1868. Father was a former slave and mother was born free. Played violin and cornet. Moved to Sedalia, lived there from 1894-1901. Sedalia was a touristy town. Travelers wanted entertainment so the city put together musical ensembles, theaters, baseball teams, churches, saloons, dance halls etc. Not really affected as much by Jim Crow legislation. Dubbed "King of Ragtime." Insulted by this. Argues that syncopations do not mean that music is trashy. Left Sedalia at turn of century, eventually settled in NYC. Died in 1917. Wrote operas: most significant opera was Treemonisha. Ragtime-People think it was named for "ragged rhythm" (aka the syncopation). However, it actually is named from pulling up handkerchiefs to signal a dance. Irving Berlin-Russian Jewish immigrant. Emigrated at the age of five. Composed Sadie Salome in 1909. Based on Strauss's Salome mixed with Lower East Side neighborhood life. Mid 1800s-rec dancing not really socially prominent in USA. Usually occurs only for private functions or dives. Dancing is very formal; one has to learn steps and motions. New dances allow more free movement. 1912-1917: described both the end of Victorian era and beginning of significant change. Immigrants arriving into NY until 1914 when WWI broke out in Europe. Alexander's Ragtime Band-Alexander associated w/ black characters in minstrel shows. James Reese Europe-born in 1880 in Mobile, Alabama. Studied w/ grandson of Frederick Douglass. Hired to play for wealthy people. Asked to organize band for 15th Infantry. Band dubbed "the Hellfighters." Sent to France to help with troop morale. War ends and Hellfighters left army and toured US. Hellfighters dream ends suddenly when band member decides to stab Europe before they performed in Boston. Europe first black in NYC to be honored w/ public funeral. Chapter 30: Jazz Goes National Paul Whiteman-King of Jazz Louis Armstrong-New Orleans jazz. Warmth and strength of tone, technique, voice... Born in poverty in New Orleans. Father abandoned his family and mom was a prostitute. Started to work when he was seven. Sang for hours for tips. Was sent to a reform school and started to learn music. Played in summer of 1919 on Mississippi riverboats. King Oliver's second cornetist. Max Kaminsky impressed of Louis Armstrong. Armstrong has a solo of West End Blues. Technical mastery due to marriage to Lil Hardin. Became a good sight reader due to her intense instruction. Roger Pryor Doge-discovered jazz and explored it. Professional dancer in NYC. Believes that all music depends on dancing. Jazz and baroque music based on bare melodies. Fletcher Henderson-conducted orchestra which was a black dance band. Dodge finds out that improvisation is a very important part of jazz. Dodge decided to dance to transcribed solos. Freedom in jazz and classical music based on principal of variation. Linked traits to Europe rather to Africa. Morton-born in 1890 to Creole parents in Haiti. Stayed in Chicago during WWI. Organized Red Hot Peppers. Recording sessions were successful when Morton was in charge because he rigorously focused on trouble spots in rehearsal until they sounded almost perfect. Moved from Chicago to NY in 1928. Morton and Armstrong did not have much in common except that they lived in the same hometown. Their generations were different. Morton considered himself racially superior. Chicago's jazz scene-rooted in African-American population on South Side. Great migration occurred btwn 1916-1919. North/West sides of Chicago-black customers not invited During that time, someone reported that black businesses can only be successful if the majority of its customers are white. Original Dixieland Jazz Band-began recording in 1917. Chicago cabarets- black and white customers were welcome to mingle with one another. Black jazz musicians impress local white players. Bud Freeman-saxophonist Oliver band- blends freedom and discipline Chicago's white lives impacted by jazz. Chicago's café society was a hot spot for white musicians. Bix Beiderbecke- born in Chicago. White jazz cornetist. Taught himself cornet by playing along with recordings. Parents were not happy with son's musical preferences and academic performance sent him to an academy north of Chicago. However, his academic performance did not improve and he was kicked out of the academy. White musicians exempt from prejudice but social advantage did not carry over to the music world. For whites the process of becoming a jazz musician is more difficult than it is for their African American counterparts. North Side jobs did not last as long as jobs in the North Side.
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