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Guided Questions Ch. 5-6

by: Greg Eckhardt

Guided Questions Ch. 5-6 HLM 463

Marketplace > University of Hartford > Music > HLM 463 > Guided Questions Ch 5 6
Greg Eckhardt
University of Hartford
GPA 3.8
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Hey guys, here are the guided questions for Dr. Schiano's 20th C. Lit class. The bolded words are for ease of access for pieces to do listening logs. Expect each chapter to be up here!
Music Literature of the 20th Century
Dr. Schiano
Class Notes
Music History, Classical Music, Literature




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Greg Eckhardt on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HLM 463 at University of Hartford taught by Dr. Schiano in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Music Literature of the 20th Century in Music at University of Hartford.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
CHAPTER 5: Other European Currents 1. To where did Rachmaninov emigrate in 1918? America 2. What was the only piece written after his emigration to gain widespread popularity? Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 43​ . 3. How does Morgan relate Ives to Rachmaninov? Both composers felt cut off from their contemporaries, but for different reasons. (Rachmaninoff- too traditional; Ives- too innovative). 4. What is a “synthechord”? What we call a “pitch set”. Used by Roslavets, 7 notes that he used to write his Quasi Prelude. 5. Who wrote Quasi Prelude (1915)​ and why is it remarkable? See #4. 6. What other piece by the same composer works somewhat like itSyntheses (1914). 7. What is Verismo? Verismo is a type of opera popular in early 20th C. Italy. 8. What is considered the model for Verismo? The works of Verga, Zola, and Sardou. 9. Who were the operatic successors of Verdi in Italy at the turn of the century? Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945), Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1857-1919), Umberto Giordano (1867-1948), and Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924). 10. What are Puccini’s two “exotic” (“oriental”) oMadame Butterfly ​ (1904); Turandot​. 11. What Italian movement was founded by Filippo Marinetti? When? Futurism, 1909. 12. Who wrote the “Manifesto of Futurist Musicians”? When? Francesco Balilla Pratella (1880-1955); 1910. 13. Who wrote “The Art of Noises”? When? Luigi Russolo (1885-1947); 1913. 14. What were intonarumori? Musical instruments developed by Russolo; boxes that would make noises and sounds. 15. Why don’t you hear futurist music of the period played anymore? Most of the instruments and music has been lost. 16. What opera was the milestone in Janacek’s careJenů​fa(1903)​. 17. How does Morgan differentiate Janacek from his noteworthy Czech predecessors? His favorite musical style, opera, wasn’t as popular when he was writing music as it had previously been. Also, Bartok was a lot more important. 18. How does Morgan relate Janacek to Moussorgsky in terms of musical procedures? Both their melodies take influence from the language it is speaking; the different rhythms of speech, inflection, etc. 19. What was Janacek’s main contribution/interest in the language of opera? Writing music that followed the “melodic curves of speech”. 20. Which 4 operas were written in the last 4 years of Janacek’Kat’a Kabanova (1921), The Cunning Little Vixen​(1923), The Makropulos Affair ​(1925), From the House of the Dead (​1928). 21. How does Morgan differentiate Bartok and Kodaly’s incorporation of the folk music they both loved? Kodaly’s folk-inspired music retains the original form, more so than Bartok. 22. Which is Sibelius’s symphony with voice​ullervo​(1892). 23. Name Sibelius’s tone poems that were inspired by Finnish national liteEn Saga ​ (1892), ​emminkäïnen Legends ​ (1893-95), Finlandia (1899). 24. In what year did Finlandia and the First Symphony appearFinlandia (1899)​ , Symphony No. 1 (1899). 25. How does Morgan contrast Sibelius’s conception of the symphony with Mahler’s? Sibelius believes that there should be a sort of inter-connection between all of the motives of a symphony, whereas Mahler believes that a symphony “must be a world. It must embrace everything.” 26. How did Sibelius achieve a Finnish “flavor” in his symphonies? The orchestration he uses inflicts darker colors, reminiscent of the Finnish landscape. Also, some of the melodies have hints of the folk music of Finland. 27. Which symphony is often thought of as an essay on the tensions and ambiguities set up by the tritone​ ymphony No. 4 28. What is the subtitle of SibeliString Quartet of 1909​ ? “Voces intimae” 29. What were Sibelius’s two last major worksSymphony No. 7 (1924), ​ Tapiola​ (1926). 30. How does Morgan relate Sibelius to Rachmaninov? Like Rachmaninoff’s conservatism, it was hard for him to keep in time with the other composers that were making great innovations. 31. Relate the Sibelius 8th to the Mahler 10th. Neither were finished in their lifetimes. 32. How does Morgan compare Nielson’s and Sibelius’s symphonies? Both gained recognition from their extended symphonic works (Nielson took a little bit longer), and both based the framework of their music on 19th C. traditions. 33. How does Morgan explain how “extended tonality” develops in Nielson’s symphonies? The principal key emerges from the music as a result of two oppositional key centers. 34. In what way may Nielson’s symphonies be thought of as anti-romantic? Chromaticism is avoided, and there is a strong Classical era characteristic that pushes him away from the German and Russian symphonists, but also Sibelius. 35. What is Nielson’s symphonic commentary on modernist musical tendencies? You can often find comedic values in his music; something not found in Sibelius. 36. What did Ravel state was his sole aim as a composer? “Technical perfection”. 37. What was Stravinsky’s description of Ravel? A “Swiss watchmaker”; 38. When did Ravel write La Valse? the violin sonata? Bolero? piano concerLa Valse (1920); Violin Sonata ​(1927)​; Bolero(1928); Piano Concerto​ (1931). 39. Which piece notably incorporates what Ravel thought was American jazz? The violin sonata and piano concerto. 40. How does Morgan compare Debussy to Ravel? Debussy wrote music that got the conservatives angry and the progressives happy. Ravel wrote music that intrigued listeners, and used musical elements from his youth. 41. What is remarkable about theSonata for Violin and Cello​? The music from this piece is very economic, and is described by him as “the music is stripped down to the bone.” CHAPTER 6: Beyond the Continent 1. Which Continental composers of the 18th and 19th Century “took the place” of native born English composers? Handel and Mendelssohn. 2. What is the English Renaissance? The composing of “Enigma” Variations​ sparked a new musical rebirth. 3. What work of 1899 put Elgar on the ma“Enigma”​Variations​1899) 4. Name by Elgar: a tone poem, an oratorio, a concert overFalstaff(1913),The Apostles​(1903)​,Cockaigne (​1901). 5. What concerti exist by ElgViolin andCello concerto. 6. What chamber pieces did Elgar produce 1918-1919?Violin sonata,String quartet, piano quartet​. 7. In what foreign conservatory did Delius study? Leipzig Conservatory 8. In what country did Delius settle? France (in 1888) 9. What are the three best known tone poems by DeliuBrigg Fair(1907)​,In a Summer Garden​ (1908)​,On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring​(1912)​. 10. With which significant composers did Vaughan Williams study? Max Bruch in Berlin, and Ravel in Paris. 11. In which conservatory did Vaughan Williams study and later teach? Royal college of Music. 12. With respect to Vaughan Williams, what aWelcome Songs​ ,The English Hymnal​ , On Wenlock Edge​ ,Riders to the Sea. (1) song cycle by Henry Purcell; (2) A book he rewrote; (3) A setting of 6 poems by A. E. Housman; (4) something 13. What does Morgan say about the Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis. It takes the form of one movement in the traditional style of an Elizabethan fantasy. It pits two separate groups of players together (9 v. 4) 14. What are the following works and what interests do they betray? Savitri, Beni Mora, The Planets.Savitriis a chamber opera that represents his interest in HinBeni Mora is an orchestral suite that has music he heard while visiting The Planets​is a piece for symphony orchestra that he composed portraying the different astrological characteristics of the planets. 15. How does Morgan compare Holst’s and V-W’s interests in English folk music? 16. Name an opera, an oratorio, and an overture by HoSavit, The Hymn of Jesus​,and Fugal Overture​. 17. What did Holst consider to be his finest piece of Egdon Heath​ (1927) 18. Who are the less profound figures that Morgan groups with the major Renaissance composers (Elgar, Delius, Vaughan Williams, Holst)? Granville Bantock, John Ireland Frank Bridge, and Arnold Bax. 19. How does Morgan relate their output to the “gap” in English composition in the centuries before? These composers focused on writing music that followed the form of the 18th and 19th C. Tone poems, symphonies, chamber music, etc. 20. Who composed the following pieces and when?Indian Suite, String Quartet on Negro Themes? ​ Edward MacDowell (1860-1908)​ Indian Suite (1895), String Quartet (1919). 21. When did Dvorak live in the United States and why does Morgan mention him here? From 1892-1895, he was greatly influenced by American music. 22. Where did George W. Chadwick study music? NEC 23. How does Morgan say that Ives’s “isolation” affected his influence? his music? The isolation made it difficult for him to influence other composers, but it helped him to create a more distinct non-European sound. 24. What was Ive’s musical education? He was trained as a organist and pianist, and was familiar with keyboard literature. His father, George Ives, had a great influence on his music that involves quartertones and polytonality. 25. Where did he attend college and with whom did he study music there? Yale, Horatio Parker (who was trained in Germany). 26. How did Ives make a living and how does one assume this affected his music? He worked in Life Insurance. Because he was financially stable, he was able to compose what he wanted and not be influenced by money of other people. 27. Who was Ives’s father and what was his job? George Ives, the town band master and a church musician. 28. Why is the first complete Ives Edition” still being worked on? Ives didn’t always finish his music. 29. What is remarkable about theSong for Harvest Season​ ?Psalm 54​ ?Harvest Season has a fugue where each part is in a different kPsalm 54​uses the whole-tone scale. 30. Comment on Ives’s view of the usefulness of tonality (after he had written music that was not based in it). He feels that tonality should be used when the composer is trying to reach something through the music. 31. What does Morgan tell you aboutCharlie Rutlage​ ?At The River​? Rutlage​tries to be a simple cowboy song, but sort of loses tonality, and has “wrong notes” in the harmony. The music forRiver​is set up in two 8-bar phrases, but after each tonal cadence breaks into unusual distorted music. 32. How does one describe what happens in The Things Our Fathers Loved​ (Ex VI-3)? The music gives a strong presence in C major, but sort of goes through a couple of different key centers, before finishing in a very remote key center. 33. What does Morgan mean by “combinational” music? Ives likes to quote music, so “combinational” could be described as music from a variety of sources synthesized into one form. 34. How does Morgan relate Ives to Mahler? There is a unity that is formed in this type of music. Basically, Ives tries to relate all of the elements he combines together so that they fit in a nice, large, framework. 35. What does Morgan discuss of rhythmic interest iOver the Pavements​ ? Steeples and Mountains​ ?Pavements​ This is an experiment by Ives of combining a number of different rhythmic patterns.Steeples takes rhythmic values and splices them up differently (half notes/8​16ths -> dotted eighths/3 16ths.) 36. What is the scenario iThe Unanswered Question​ ? A set of offstage strings that play triadic C major harmony, solo trumpet that repeats the “question” 7 times throughout the piece, and a quartet of flutes that reply to the question with answers 6 times (the last one remains unanswered), each time becoming more dissonant and sporadic. 37. In what way is indeterminacy employed in The Unanswered Question? The flute players are not required to play at the exact time the music declares. 38. How does Morgan describe Ive at his most characteristic? What pieces does he give as examples? (1905-1915) A couple of multi-movement compositions; The 3rd and 4th Symphonies (no. 3 better known as ​Three Places in New England​ ), the2nd string quartet​, and the twoPiano Sonatas​ (no. 2 subtitle“Concord, Mass., 1840-1860”​ ). 39. What happens in the 2nd Movement of ​ Ives’s 4th Symphony​ ? This is by far his most complex and rich piece of music written by him so far, with several layers of opposing harmonic and thematic content. Basically, it is written as to be heard as mass of sound, confusing and complex. 40. When was Ives’s heart attack and when did he die? Heart attack in 1918, D. 1954. 41. What is the chronologically last piece by Ives that Morgan mentionsThree Quarter Tone Pieces​ for two pianos. 42. Which Ives symphony ends with a wordless choir? ​Symphony No. 4​ .


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