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Concepts week 5 notes

by: kmb0095

Concepts week 5 notes SCMH 1010 - 002

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concepts notes
Concepts of Science
Allen Lee Landers
Class Notes
Concepts of Science
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by kmb0095 on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCMH 1010 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Allen Lee Landers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Science in Science at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Week 5 2/8/16  energy (ch.3) o great idea: the many different forms of energy are interchangeable, and the total amount of energy in an isolated system is conserved o the great chain of energy  scientifically speaking  energy related to force  Work o force over distance o formula: W = Fd o Units: joules  Energy o Ability to do work  Power o Rate at which work is done o Equation: P = W/t or (E – f)/ti o Units: watts  Basic ideas  Energy can be provided/stored in various forms  Food is one way to store energy. Our bodies store energy in the form of fat, which can be converted back in terms of low availability of food  Other units for energy  A calorie is the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water be 1 degree Celsius (4.2 J)  A kilocalorie (aka food calorie) is the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 degree Celsius, this is exactly 1000 small calories (4.2 kJ)  Kinetic energy  Energy of moving object  Mas and speed o Directly proportional to KE  Equation = E =k1/2mv 2  Potential energy  Energy waiting to be released  Grav PE o E p mgh  Chem PE  Electrical PE  Magnetic PE  James Watt’s first “sun and planet” steam engine  Efficiently converted potential chemical energy (coal) into KE  Breaching humpback whale has KE bc he is moving  The KE is mostly converted into PE the moment the whale reaches the highest point  Heat or thermal energy  Atoms and molecules o Bonding  Motion o Force  Thermal energy o Heat o Random KE of atoms and molecules  Discovering the nature of heat  The friction created drilling the barrels of cannons was converted into heat  Wave energy  Wave  Sound wave  Seismic wave  Electromagnetic radiation  Mass as energy  Radioactivity  Einstein o Equation: E = mc 2 2 o Energy (J) = mass (kg) x speed of light (m/s)  Can convert mass to energy 2/10/16  The Interchangeability of Energy  Some forms of energy o    Example of energy changing from one to another: slinky  Energy changes form during a bungee jump  Energy hitting the earth o Radius of Earth = 6.375 million meters o Solar energy power = 1400 W/m 2 o How much power hits the earth?? o A = 1.2 x 10 14m 2 17 o P = 1.7 x 10 W  Energy for Life and Trophic Levels o    Energy is Conserved o Closed: Energy neither enters not exits o Open: Energy can come in or go out  Law of Conservation of Energy o Total energy in system is conserved o Type of energy vs. total  The US and its Energy Future o Fossil fuels  Oil, coal, natural gas o Renewable energy sources  Solar energy, wind o Base load vs. Peak load  Sources of Energy for the US as of June 2014 o Petroleum—36% o Natural gas—27% o Coal—19% o Renewable—10% o Nuclear—8%  The main source of energy used in the US is oil  Electricity generated from wind turbines  Solar Photovoltaic panels can be used in various ways  Solar thermal facility in Barstow, California  Transportation o Electric vehicles  Battery  Short range o Hybrid vehicles  Gas and battery  Many new models o Fuel cell vehicles  Hydrogen  Uses fossil fuels to create hydrogen 2/12/16 Ch.4  First Law of Thermodynamics—Law of Conservation of Energy o Does not prevent things to go to a more disorderly state o Fast atoms collide with slower atoms, energy is transferred to slower ones, equilibrium is eventually reached  Second Law of Thermodynamics—Tendency for disorder o Things will not order themselves o Deck of cards getting shuffled more = more disorder o Evolution to a more probable state  Entropy = measurement of disorder increases  It takes energy to reverse the process After mixing the ingredients for a salad, why do the ingredients remain mixed? The statistical likelihood of this happening is so low that the chance of it happening is essentially zero  Heat and energy o Energy in motion o Warm to cool o Heat is a measure of energy flow  Temperature is a measure of atomic movement  Temperature Scales o Fahrenheit scale o Celsius o Kelvin  Absolute zero  If the temperature of an object changes by 5°C then it also changes by: 5K  Conversion to Fahrenheit o °F = (1.8 °F/°C x °C) + 32 °F o 30°C = (1.8°F/°C x 30°C) + 32 °F = 86°F  Conversion to Celsius o °C = (°F - 32°F)/1.8°F/°C o 104°F = (104°F - 32°F)/1.8 °F/°C = 40°C  Specific heat capacity o Quantity of heat need to raise 1g of a substance by 1 °C  Water o Highest specific heat o 1 cal/g °C  Conduction o Movement of heat by atomic scale collision o Thermal conductivity  Convections o Bulk transfer of molecules o Convection cells are also the driving force behind the currents of the oceans  Radiation In a room that is heated by a floor-mounted radiator near a wall, in which of the following locations would you find the coolest air? Near the floor at the bottom of the wall directly opposite the radiator


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