BMS 212 W5
BMS 212 W5 BMS 212
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 212 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Leonard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
BMS 212 Week 5 Ch. 5 Metabolism Metabolism is all the biochemical reactions that occur within a cell; main components include ATP, oxidation/reduction reactions, electron carriers and enzymes • anabolic: energy required (endergonic) • catabolic: energy released (exergonic) Oxidation and reduction reactions are coupled for most processes oxidation: species loses their electrons, considered electron donor reduction: species gaining the electrons, electron acceptor Electron carriers: needed to transport electrons since only protons are free to move NAD + 2e +2H NADH + H —hydride ion (2 electrons, 1 hydrogen) - + FAD + 2e + 2H FADH 2 NADP + 2e + 2H NADPH + H —protons towards anabolic process These are all coenzymes created from vitamins ADP can be modiﬁed to ATP by sunlight or energy adding the inorganic phosphate group to ADP 1.) Substrate level phosphoryla▯on: a phosphate group is added to ADP from a phosphorylated organic compound 2.) Oxida▯ve phosphoryla▯on: proton mo▯ve force from redox reac▯ons a▯ach inorganic phosphate to ADP in cell membrane of prokaryotes (ﬁrst step is oxida▯on of NADH) 3.) Photophosphoryla▯on: energy from sun adds phosphate to ADP (only photosyntheitc, no pathogens) Enzymes Simple: composed of only protein Conjugated: Protein + non-protein component inorganic: cofactor (Cu) organic: coenzyme (NAD-) Holoenzyme: apoenzyme (protein structure) + cofactor Enzyme ac▯vity based on: • Temperature: higher than op▯mal temps result in unfolding/disfunc▯on • pH level: undesired pH causes unfolding • Substrate concentra▯on: when less of an enzyme, process will slow (reaches satura▯on point where addi▯on of any more enzyme doesn’t change rate) Enzyme inhibitors: • Compe▯▯ve: func▯on to block the ac▯vity site by binding where the substrate want to • Non-compe▯▯ve: don’t bind to ac▯vity site but rather an allosteric site that changes the shape of the enzyme - allosteric inhibitor: binds to allosteric site (not ac▯vity site), changing the shape of the ac▯ve site, disabling the substrate from binding - allosteric ac▯vator: ac▯vator binds to allosteric site that changes the non-func▯onal shape of the enzyme so the substrate can bind to the ac▯ve site - feedback inhibi▯on: products of an enzyme pathway produce the allosteric inhibitor as a product that will bind to the ﬁrst enzyme and stop produc▯on; form of regula▯on
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