Week 2 Notes- HLTH130
Week 2 Notes- HLTH130 HLTH130
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Kotler on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HLTH130 at University of Maryland taught by TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public and Community Health in Health Sciences at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Health, disease, and illness: matters for definition; Harry E. Emson ● Health: the absence of illness, the opposite of illness ● Disease: opposite of health, demonstrable pathophys/chemistry, internal state that impairs or reduces health ● Illness: can be diseased without being ill, or having something wrong but no symptoms/symptoms but no organic tangible issues seen Health and Societies: Changing Perspectives ● Book examines “changes in perspectives that occur in health/health services/policy” ● Discusses approaches to disease, etc. Ch. 1 Notes ● People are healthier today than ever before due to cleaner air, food and water, sewage treatment, better nutrition, more knowledge, etc ● Public health science/art of preventing disease, prolonging life, promoting physical health through the environment, education, community, etc. ○ Increases life spans, decreases prevalence of disease ○ 3 core functions ■ Assessment identify community health issues, diagnose, investigate ■ Policy development inform/educate about issues, make policy ■ Assurance enforce laws, give people what they need, evaluate programs ○ Focuses on preventative medicine, while medicine focuses on healing the ill ● Provide services for protection of community’s health, like environmental/educational/ basic medical services ● Divided into: epidemiology, statistics, biomedical sciences, environmental health science, social and behavioral science, and health policy/management ● Intervention ○ 1. Define the problem ○ 2. Identify risk associated with problem ○ 3. Develop and test interventions to control/prevent cause of problem ○ 4. Implement interventions ○ 5. Monitor interventions ● Prevention ○ Primary prevent exposure to risk factor ○ Secondary minimize damage from exposure ○ Tertiary minimize disability by providing care and rehab services ● Injuries and illness are a result of a chain of causation involving an agent, host, and environment ○ Ex. agent is a virus, host is a susceptible human being, and environment is how the person gets sick (water, air, etc). Prevention = interrupting chain at any step Lecture 2/2 Notes Changing Nature of What Constitutes Health, Illness, and Disease ● Obesity example: labeling obesity as a disease makes people think that it is nonreversible or unable to be changed ○ If it is looked at as an internal state, we cannot prevent before it happens ● What does it mean to be healthy ormal functioning ○ Normal (functional) vs abnormal (dysfunctional) ○ WHO definition is ambiguous, hard or impossible to measure ○ Mean +/ 2 standard deviations → makes it so those who are obese are healthy ■ Is obesity healthy then? ○ Absence of disease? ● What is illness? Medical or existential (arising from personal disabilities), can be diseased without being ill ● How does illness differ from disease? ○ Disease is aninterna state, impairment or reduction of functional abilities ■ State that disadvantages a person for survival, reproduction, or quality of life ■ More respected, validated ● Paradoxes ○ US spends more GDP on health than any other industrialized country yet health indicators fall much lower ○ Evidence says education prevents unwanted pregnancy and STIs yet federal money only supports abstinence ● “The scientific method is only one of several routes to knowledge.” ● Context matters!!!!! ○ Ex. economic status, culture, politics ○ Systematic differences based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, etc. ● Concept of health and illness are largely socially constructed 2/4: What conditions do we now think of as diseases or public health problems that weren’t always seen in this way? ● Violence when is it unacceptable? ● Alcoholism ● ADHD when is fidgeting too much? ● PMS stigma, concern with periods, could make you seem “dirty” ● Shortness parents put children on growth hormones ● Homosexuality is it a sin, disease, crime, alternative lifestyle?
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