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Chapter 3 and 4

by: Kailee Chitwood

Chapter 3 and 4 1800

Kailee Chitwood
GPA 3.86
General Sociology
Marisa K Pendleton

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About this Document

This material covers exam number 2 according to my syllabus
General Sociology
Marisa K Pendleton
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kailee Chitwood on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1800 at University of Central Missouri taught by Marisa K Pendleton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Sociology at University of Central Missouri.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Chapter 3 Culture Culture the beliefs traditions behaviors and material objects that constitute a person39s way of life Includes language food dress etc Organizational norms and rules that govern life Roles and social positions are held Representative of our environment Holds meaning Causes us to organize our behavior in relation to our surrounding Most of what we do is determined by culture 0 Food beauty hobbies Terms Subculture patterns that signi cantly oppose those that are widely accepted in society 0 Do not value civil rights equality etc 0 Example Cults KKK Material Culture part of the constructed physical environment 0 Example Books car technology NonMaterial Culture values beliefs behaviors and norms o Intangible Material and Nonmaterial culture differ between societies and change over time Ethnocentrism judging another culture by one s own culture 0 Our ways are better than their ways 0 Cultural Relativism judging another culture by its own standards 0 I may not agree with you but I except you Culture Shock personal disorientation that results from experiencing an unfamiliar way of life 0 Using the left hand in lndia unclean Graduating class 0 Personal Space Values and Norms Norms develop values 0 Values Culturally de ned standards that serve as society s general guideline 0 Freedom and Beauty Norms Rules and expectations by which society guides behavior 0 2 types Folkways society s customs for routine casual interaction 0 Ex Not shaking someone39s hand Mores society s customs for proper moral conduct law 0 Ex Murder assault 0 Age Graded Norms Expectations about behavior that are dependent on your age Language and Symbols 0 Language a set of symbols through language we are able to teach others about values and norms Symbols things with a recognized meaning within any given culture 0 Verbal gestures etc 0 Meaning isn39t always understood the same by people Media any formats or vehicles that carry present or communicate information 0 Mass Media refers to any form of media that reaches the mass of the people Hegemony the impact of media on culture an how people and societies are shaped by the dominant culture 0 Many critics of the media often argue that not all aspects or perspectives are equally disseminated or valued in the media 0 Media studies open paths of investigation 0 Textual analyst and audience studies 0 How people create media and the biases involved in that creation 0 How media re ects the culture in which they exist 0 How individuals and groups use the media to change culture 0 Media Effects 0 Media effects can be placed into 4 categories according to their duration and intention 1 Short term and deliberate advertising 2 Long term and deliberate a campaign 3 Short term and unintentional violence in media 4 Long term and unintentional prejudices stereotypes Stereotypes intentionally or unintentionally subtly or overtly the media an create or reinforce ethnic racial gender religious and other stereotypes Political Economy of the Media 0 Media ownership in the US is in the hands of 6 companies 0 Those companies affect the information and messages communicated to the public 0 The media especially advertisement plays a large role in the maintenance of consumerism the belief that happiness and ful llment can be achieved through acquisition of material possessions Culture Jamming 1 example of subverting the power of media Chapter 4 Socialization Socialization the process by which people internalize the norms beliefs and values of a given society 0 Through socialization we learn to function as a number of society 0 The most important aspects of social life are those concepts we learn without anyone teaching us Begins at the earliest stages of development Limits of Socialization Socialization cannot explain everything about development or personality 0 You are a combo of biology and social interactions 0 Think of when a relative has ever compared you to a parent or sibling Agents of Socialization Families 0 School 0 Peers 0 Media 0 Total Institutions Family 0 Primary unit of socialization Differs depending on demographics Social classes socialize their children differently 0 Middle Class stress independence and selfdirection 0 Working Class stress obedience to external authority Schooh Manifest and Latent Functions 0 Manifest socialize and learn 0 Latent Making friends 0 Teachers teach you more than speci c material 0 Peer groups Peers Reinforce messages taught in the home or contradict them 0 Peer Pressure the expectation to conform Total Institutions 0 An institution in which one is totally immersed that controls all the basics of daytoday life 0 Ex Branch of military Undergo the process of resocialization Status and Roles Status a position in society that comes with a set of expectations 0 Ascribed one we are born with o Achieved one we have earned o One39s master status is a status that seems to override all others Roles behaviors expected from a particular status 0 Role Con ict occurs when the roles associated with one status clash with the roles associated with a different status 0 Role Strain occurs when roles associated with a single status clash 0 Either of these may lead to a role exit Gender Roles A set of behavioral norms associated primarily with males or females in a given social group or system 0 Gender theorists argue that gender roles can be more powerful and in uential than other roles that people ll The Social Construction of Reality 0 Social Construction 0 People give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions 0 It39s an ongoing process that is embedded in our everyday interactions 0 Symbolic interactionism is a micro level theory based on the idea that people act in accordance with shared meanings orientations and assumptions 0 Erving Goffman39s development theory views social life as a theatrical performance in which we are all actors on metaphysical stages with roles scripts costumes and set 0 Harold Gar nkel developed a method for studying social interactions called breaching experiment involved having collaborators exhibit quotabnormalquot or quotatypicalquot behaviors in social interactions in order to see how people react Ex eating pasta in a restaurant with your hands


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