Chapter 3 Book Notes
Chapter 3 Book Notes 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schill on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Jeff Erger in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Chapter 3 Notes I) What is culture? A) Culture 1) The ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life B) Nonmaterial culture 1) The ideas created by members of a society C) Material culture 1) The physical things created by members of a society D) Culture shock 1) Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life E) Culture and Human Intelligence 1) Founding of permanent settlements and the creation of specialized occupations in the Middle East marked the “birth of civilization” 2) Started to fashion the natural environment for ourselves F) Culture, Nation, and Society 1) Culture (a)A shared way of life 2) Nation (a)A political entity, a territory with designated borders 3) Society (a)The organized interaction of people who typically live in a nation or some other specific territory 4) Multicultural (a)People following various ways of life that blend (and sometimes clash) G) How Many Cultures? 1) 382 languages spoken in the US 2) Globally, 7,000 languages but declining 3) About 4,000 only spoken by fewer than 10,000- Pennsylvania German 4) Globalization is the main reason for a decline in languages II) The Elements of Culture A) Symbols 1) Symbol (a)Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture B) Language 1) Language (a)A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another 2) Cultural transmission (a)The process by which one generation passes culture to the next 3) Does Language Shape Reality? (a)Sapir-Whorf thesis (i) People see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language (b)Recently, however, we have come to think that language does not determine reality in that way C) Values and Beliefs 1) Values (a)Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living 2) Beliefs (a)Specific thoughts or ideas that people hold to be true 3) Key Values of U.S. Culture (a)Equal opportunity (b)Achievements (c)Material comfort (d)Activity and work (e)Practicality and efficiency (f) Progress (g)Science (h)Democracy and free enterprise (i) Freedom (j) Racism and group superiority 4) Values: Often in Harmony, Sometimes in Conflict (a)Sometimes values go together in value clusters (i) Activity and work and achievement and success (b)Sometimes contradict each other (i) Equal opportunity vs. racism and group superiority 5) Values: Change Over Time (a)Like all elements of culture, values change overtime 6) Values: A Global Perspective (a)Values vary from culture to culture (b)Lower-income nations develop cultures that value survival (c)Higher-income nations develop cultures that value individualism and self-expression D) Norms 1) Norms (a)Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members 2) Mores and Folkways (a)Mores (MORE-ayz) (i) Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance (b)Folkways (i) Norms for routine or casual interaction (c)Mores distinguish between right and wrong, and folkways draw a line between right and rude 3) Social Control (a)Social control (i) Attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior E) Ideal and Real Culture 1) Ideal culture always differ from real culture, which is what actually occurs in everyday life F) Material Culture and Technology 1) Artifacts (a)Physical human creations (i) Ex) chopsticks, certain types of clothing 2) Technology (a)Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings G) New Information Technology and Culture 1) Industrial production is centered on factories and machines 2) Postindustrial production is based on computers and other electronic devices III) Cultural Diversity: Many Ways of Life in One World A) High Culture and Popular Culture 1) High culture (a)Cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elite 2) Popular culture (a)Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population B) Subculture 1) Subculture (a)Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of society’s population C) Multiculturalism 1) Multiculturalism (a)A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions 2) Eurocentrism (a)The dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns 3) Afrocentrism (a)Emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns D) Counterculture 1) Counterculture (a)Cultural patterns that strongly oppose theose widely accepted within a society E) Cultural Change 1) Cultural integration (a)The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system 2) Cultural Lag (a)Cultural lag (i) The fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural sstem 3) Causes of Cultural Change (a)Three ways cultural changes are set in motion (i) Invention The process of creating new cultural elements (ii)Discovery Involves recognizing and understanding more fully something in existence (iii) Diffusion The spread of cultural traits from one society to another F) Ethnocentrism 1) Ethnocentrism (a)The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture 2) Cultural relativism (a)The practice of judging a culture by its own standards G) A Global Culture? 1) The global economy: the flow of goods 2) Global communications: the flow of information 3) Global migration: the flow of people IV)Theories of Culture A) Structural-Functional Theory: The Functions of Culture 1) Explains culture as a complex strategy for meeting human needs 2) Considers values the core of a culture 3) Cultural universals (a)Traits that are part of every known culture B) Social-Conflict Theory: Inequality 1) Stresses the link between culture and inequality 2) Benefits some members of society at the expense of others 3) A society’s system of material production has a powerful effect on the rest of a culture C) Feminist Theory: Gender and Culture 1) Agree with Marx’s claim that culture is an arena of conflict, but this conflict is rooted in gender 2) Gender (a)The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male D) Sociobiology: Evolution and Culture 1) Sociobiology (a)A theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture 2) Rests on the theory of evolution and including natural selection V) Culture and Human Freedom A) Culture As Constraint 1) We experience alienation 2) Matters of habit, which limit us our choices and repeat troubling patterns 3) We experience isolation B) Culture as Freedom 1) Biological instincts create a ready-made world 2) Culture forces us to make choices as we make and remake a world for ourselves 3) No better evidence of this freedom exists than the cultural diversity of our own society and the even greater human diversity found around the world
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