Psychology ONE WEEK OF NOTES 2/8-2/12
Psychology ONE WEEK OF NOTES 2/8-2/12 Psychology 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donna Park on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Khaddouma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Psychology Notes Sensation and Perception -Sensation- detection of physical energy by sense organs (eyes, nose, ears, taste buds) -Perception- the brain’s interpretation of information from sense organs -Sense receptor cells -cells specialized for converting external stimuli into neutral activity for a specific sensory system -Transduction -process of converting an external energy or substance into electrical neural activity -sensation -> transduction -> perception -we as humans can’t see the fullness of the world because there’s more colors smells that our nose and eyes can’t see as well as other creatures Sensation -Laws of Sensation -organism must be adapted to be able to sense the stimuli for it be to perceived -usually by having specialized sense organs (ex: eyes, ears, etc.) -stimuli intensity must be high enough for organism to sense it -Absolute Threshold -lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect it half of the time -sun example -Just Noticeable Difference -smallest detectable change in the intensity of stimulus -1 vs. 2 page paper (significant difference between writing one paper or two) -20 vs. 40 page paper (bigger difference than before) -20 vs. 21 page paper (when it gets too large, a little change will not make too much of a difference Perception -Bottom up processing – process by which a whole is constructed from parts -Top down processing – conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies -In real world experiences, we use both, which is called parallel processing -Elephant example and the legs (if we take away the many legs, how can we tell it’s an elephant? Because of the trunk, and we already know an elephant should have four legs) Two faces or the vase example (it’s hard to see both at the same time because our brain Is used to seeing one thing at one time, not a vase and two phases at the same time) -Illusion- perception that does not match the physical reality of a physical object -usually because of errors in constancy, color filtration, or context contamination -Checkerboard and A and B example- looked the same until checkerboard popped up (because our brain already has an idea of how to see things) Attention -Selective Attention- process of selecting one sensory channel and minimizing or ignoring others -cocktails party phenomenon - paying attention but all of a sudden someone says your name. When they said your name, it averted your attention -21 changes video -selective attention can lead to inattentional blindness -failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere The Eye -The retina -membrane in back of eye -consists of: -rods: -low levels of light, darkness -basic shapes and forms -cones: -adequate lighting -color -Feature detector cells -a type of sensory receptor cell -respond to simple, particular shapes (e.g. lines of different orientations) -Opponent Process Theory -primary colors: blue, green, red -after images result from inhibited color cells becoming excited when their opposing color is removed -i.e. red cells become excited after green is perceived at length -The Ear -sensitive to loud noises, over time your hearing gets worse and worse -The Nose -not very sensitive -olfactory bulb is responsible for scent -Limbic system is so close to Olfactory bulb so scent is closely related to memory. So when you smell something, it can trigger a memory from the past -The Tongue -a bunch of muscle tissue with a layer of taste buds on top -taste buds have a bunch of nerves attached to it (the nerves stimulation sends message to brain to tell it what the taste is) -Skin -Touch and Pain -We have nerves embedded into your skin -We can tell when our skin is being touched by sharp end of needle or blunt end Application -Sight, hearing, taste, etc. all sends message to brain. -we are all different from each other when it comes to a biological level Learning -Change in an organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience -Example: us taking notes in class is a learned behavior. How we handle anxiety, what causes us distress vs what our neighbor stresses over -Classical Conditioning - form of learning in which organism come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with a stimulus that previously brought out an automatic response -unconditioned stimulus- something that elicits an automatic response (example: tongue creating spit when we see food when we are hungry) -unconditional response- -conditioned stimulus-something that comes to elicit automatic response after becoming associated with unconditioned stimulus -conditioned response- response to unconditioned stimulus that is now elicited by conditioned stimulus -Altoids example and the computer ding (The Office) – -acquisition - “learning” -pairing stimulus and response together -spontaneous recovery- when the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back after a delay in exposure -e.g. smells that trigger memories or feelings -renewal effect -when the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back when the organism is placed in original environment in which learning occurred -e.g. old feelings returning when back at home, better test performance in familiar environment -stimulus generalization -things that look like conditioned stimulus elicit conditioned response -without training -stimulus discrimination -ability to differentiate between conditioned stimulus and similar stimulus High Order Conditioning -pairing conditioned stimulus with other stimuli which come to elicit conditioned response -weaker conditioned response the higher – order you go -most organisms top out at fourth – order conditioning
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