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chapter 5 notes

by: Allie Muro

chapter 5 notes Biology 114

Allie Muro

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chapter 5 week of 2/8
Principles of Biology
Dr. Stevan Marcus
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie Muro on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stevan Marcus in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/14/16
Chapter 5 Disaccharides • Formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides • This covalent bond is called a glyosidic linkage • Most common disaccharide is sucrose Polysaccharides • Are polymers of monosaccharides • Consist of a few hundred to several thousand monosaccharides linked together • Two types: o Storage § Starch is a storage polysaccharide of plants • Consists entirely of glucose monomers • Plants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids • Simplest form of starch is amylose § Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide in animals • Like starch, consists of glucose monomers • More branched in structure than starch • Humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells • Hydrolysis of glycogen when the demand for sugar increases o Structural § Serve as building material for structures protecting cells or whole organisms § Cellulose is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells (fiber) § Like starch, cellulose is a polymer of glucose, but the glycosidic linkages differ § The difference is based on 2 ring forms for glucose: alpha in starch and beta in cellulose • Structure and function of a polysaccharide are determined by: o Its sugar monomers o The positions of its glyosidic linkages Cellulose • Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing alpha linkages can’t hydrolyze beta linkages in cellulose • This is why cellulose in human food passes through the digestive tract as insoluble fiber (a good thing) • Some microbes use enzymes to digest cellulose • Many herbivores, from cows to termites, have symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationships with these microbes Lipids • Are the one class of macromolecules that do not form polymers • The unifying feature of lipids is having little or no affinity for water • Lipids are hydrophobic because they consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which form nonpolar covalent bonds • The most biologically important lipids are: o Fats § Constructed from 2 types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids § Glycerol is a 3-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon § A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long hydrocarbon tail (e.g., palmitic acid) § Fats are synthesized via dehydration reactions between glycerol hydroxyl (-OH) and fatty acid carboxyl group (-COOH) § Fat molecules are called triacylglycerol or triglycerides § Fats separate from water because water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and exclude the fats § Fatty acids very in length (#of carbons) and in the number and locations of double bonds § *Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds § *Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds § The major function of fats is energy storage § Fats made from saturated fatty acids are called saturated fats and are solid at room temperature (e.g., butter) § Most animal fats are saturated fats § A diet rich in saturated fats may contribute to cardiovascular disease through plaque deposits in arteries § Fats made from unsaturated fatty acids are called unsaturated fats or oil and are liquid at room temperature § Plant fats and fish fats are usually unsaturated o Phospholipids § Consists of 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol backbone § The 2 fatty acid tails are hydrophobic, but the phosphate group and its attachments form a polar (hydrophilic) head § When phospholipids are added to water, the self assemble into a bilayer, with the hydrophobic tails pointing toward the interior § The structure of phospholipids results in a bilayer arrangement found in cell membranes § Are the major component of all cell membranes o Steroids § Are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings § The steroid cholesterol is a component of animal cell membranes and a precursor from which other steroids are synthesized § Although cholesterol is essential in animals high levels in the blood may contribute to cardiovascular disease § Some are hormones § The sex hormones estradiol and testosterone produce the contrasting features of female and male animals §


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