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## Stats Notes

by: Kerdelma James

17

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# Stats Notes Psych 20700-01

Kerdelma James
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Somehow, I deleted the original copy, but here it is again. I will post flashcards too!!
COURSE
Statistics in Psychology
PROF.
Ann Lynn
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
3
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Psychlogy

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerdelma James on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 20700-01 at Ithaca College taught by Ann Lynn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Statistics in Psychology in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.

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Date Created: 02/14/16
Ann Lynn, Ph.D. Psychology 207 MEASUREMENT I. What is measurement? A. Operationalizing variables by assigning numbers to objects according to rules StS.S.ns, B. Ways to describe how you measure: 1. Two types: Categorical vs Quantitative 2. Five scales: Nominal, ordinal, approx. interval, interval, ratio C. Scales determined by the properties of the numbers 1. identity: Values tell difference in attribute being measured 2. magnitude: Values tell direction of difference (more vs less) among cases 3. equal intervals: Values tell how much difference between cases. Interval on scale equal along entire length of scale 4. absolute zero: “zero” on the scale refers to the physical absence of the attribute. This contrasts with an arbitrary or artificial zero. Note that in some non-ratio scales the scale may be constructed so that there is no zero. If this is the case, consider if any number on the scale is arbitrary (could be replaced by any other number and the scale could still make sense). II. Scales of measurement A. Nominal: uses numbers as labels (identity), categorizes the objects being measured. The number assigned is arbitrary and meaningless Cannot do arithmetic on nominal scale data B. Ordinal: rank order the objects according to whether they have more, less or the same amount of the variable being measured. All you can tell is if A>B, A<B or A=B. Has identity and magnitude Cannot do arithmetic on ordinal scale data C. Approx. interval: Likert type scales assumed to be near enough to interval to be treated as interval. Can do arithmetic D. Interval: Numerically equal distances on scale represent equal distances on the dimension being measured. Has identity, magnitude & equal intervals. Can do arithmetic E. Ratio: Possess all above characteristics, plus has a meaningful zero Can do arithmetic Ann Lynn, Ph.D. Psychology 207 III. Summary of scales of measurement Scale Identity Magnitude Equal Absolute Type Math Intervals Zero Nominal Yes No No No CategoricaNlo Ordinal Yes Yes No No Categoricaol Approx. Yes Yes Assume No QuanY tiastive Interval yes Interval Yes Yes Yes No Quantitative Yes Ratio Yes Yes Yes Yes Quantitative Yes IV. Extra help! A. Are there limited number of distinct categories for values of the variable? 1. If the intervals are not always equal = categorical 2. If intervals are always equal = probably quantitative B. Is there order to the values of the variable? Does it matter how values are labeled? 1. No order, labels are arbitrary = nominal 2. Order and non-arbitrary, but categorical = ordinal 3. Order and non-arbitrary, but qualitative = interval or ratio C. Would a reported average for the variable make sense? 1. A meaningful mean = probably interval or ratio D. Does a zero for the variable mean that none of it exists? 1. A meaningful zero = ratio Ann Lynn, Ph.D. Psychology 207 In Class Practice Exercise 1. Imagine these questions are on a survey. What is the scale of measurement for each? a. What is your zip code? b. How much do you weigh in lbs? c. How much was your phone bill last month? d. Do you smoke? e. What was your SAT score? f. On a scale from 1-10 (with 10 being highest) how pretty is my dog Kira? g. What is your military rank? (e.g. General, Major, Private)

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