Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 4 (2/9 - 2/11)
Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 4 (2/9 - 2/11) PSY 100-006
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadie Threlkel on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-006 at Colorado State University taught by Maeve Bronwyn O'Donnell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Psychology Notes 2/9 – 2/11 2/9 Drugs How drugs work: Enter brain, changes how neurotransmitters function Take drugs by use of oral ingestion (lasts longer), inhalation (not as long), injection (either intramuscular or intravenous) Tolerance and Withdrawals Need more to achieve the same effect after prolonged periods of use Withdrawal – side effect of discontinuing drug use Substance Use Disorder Addiction Reward pathway and pleasure center of brain o Cravings, tolerance, withdrawal, life disruption, etc. Physical dependence (tolerance and withdrawal) Psychological dependence (cravings, etc.) Risk Factors Biological – genetics neurotransmitter levels Psychological – stress sense of purpose, coping with other disorders SocialCultural influences – environment, acceptance, peer use/norms Types of Drugs Depressants Stimulants Hallucinogens Others Depressants depress central nervous system activity o Slow down body processes o Ex. Alcohol Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines Barbiturates o Phenobarbitals, Amytal Benzodiazepines o Xanax, Valium, Atvian Effects – help with anxiety, pain and sleep o Impair memory and judgement (similar to alcohol) o High addiction potential Opiates From poppy plant (morphine, codeine, etc.) o Heroin, Morphine, Opium Synthetic Opiates o Vicodin, OxyContin, Percocet, Fentanyl Endogenous Opiates o Endorphins (runner’s high) Effects – relaxation, affects memory, pain killer Stimulants ‘Uppers’ Stimulate – increases central nervous system activity o Speeds up body processes Amphetamines o ‘Speed’ o Derived from ephedrineproducing plant o Some ADHD medication – Adderall Effects – hits dopamine receptors (euphoria) o Appetite suppression o Dysphoria once they’ve worn off o Can get sores, destroy teeth, psychosis risk Cocaine o Derived from coca plant o Effects – strong euphoria, feeling very alive (flight or fight) o Crack cocaine Processed – can smoke it Hits harder and faster but doesn’t last long Caffeine o Most popular drug o Biological effects – binds to adenosine receptors Nicotine o Biological effects – acetylcholine receptors Hallucinogens ‘Psychedelics’ LSD o Synthesized by Albert Hoffman – 1943 o Very low active dose (need very little to get high) o Effects – closed eye visuals, sensory experience in the absence of stimuli Others: Shrooms, DMT, Peyote, Salvia, research chemicals Dissociatives Mind and body detachment from environment Ketamine, PCP, DXM, Nitrous Oxide Effects vary – tranquillizing, disorienting, dissociation Others – MDMA ‘Ecstasy,’ ‘Molly’ Biological effects – releases all ‘feel good’ chemicals in the brain o Euphoria, mild psychedelic effects o Has potential therapeutic effects (testing at CU Boulder) Contamination o Almost always contaminated with something else Steroids Anabolic Steroids Similar to testosterone Many adverse side effects Marijuana Effects vary – sleepy, hungry, relaxation, euphoria THC, CBD Medical properties – antinausea, antiseizure, appetite stimulation, antianxiety Legalization Interaction Effects Synergistic o Ex. Marijuana + Alcohol, Alcohol + Cocaine Antagonistic o Ex. Opiates + NARCAN (stimulant + depressant) Toxic Combinations o Alcohol + Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines o Alcohol + Opiates o MDMA + antidepressants Grapefruit 2/11 The Brain The Brain Stem – evolutionarily ‘oldest’ part of the brain Medulla – basic lifesupport (heart beat and breathing) Reticular Formation – affects arousal – stimuli (not sexual) Thalamus – relay of station for sensory systems (except smell) Ex. Mike the Headless Chicken – brainstem still intact – lived without head fpr many months Cerebellum ‘Little brain’ Responsible for motor coordination Cerebral Cortex Evolutionarily ‘newest’ Our large cortex is what makes us ‘human’ Each Hemisphere is differentiated into four different lobes: Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Frontal Lobe Primary Role – judgement, planning, selfcontrol (executive functioning), personality Contains: o Motor cortex – generating movements, speech production Parietal Lobe Primary Role – sensory input and special awareness Occipital Lobe Primary Role – visual processing Contains: o Visual Cortex – assembles visual input into meaningful info Temporal Lobe Primary role – auditory and language processing Contains: o Auditory Cortex processes audio info Comprehending and Producing Speech Broca’s Area Left Hemisphere, Frontal Lobe (Motor Area) Damage = can’t produce speech anymore Wernicke’s Area Left Hemisphere, Temporal Lobe (Auditory Complex) Damage = can’t comprehend speech Broca’s Aphasia Patient Can’t make full sentences, frustrated Wernicke’s Aphasia Patient Stuck on one subject – what the know best Split Brain – Callosotomy Corpus Callosum cut Left side can describe what the patient sees, right hand draws what he sees (with left vision, can’t describe what he draws) Hemispherectomy – Half a brain Ex. Jody Miller Consciousness Dual Processing Consciousness – serial/sequential processing Unconsciousness – parallel processing ‘We know more than we think we know we know’ Ex. Blind Sight o Visual Processing takes two pathways after brainstem (thalamus) 1. Visual Cortex (‘what’) 2. Parietal Cortex (‘where’) Selective Attention Our awareness of one small piece of our environment Cocktail party effect
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