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Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 4 (2/9 - 2/11)

by: Sadie Threlkel

Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 4 (2/9 - 2/11) PSY 100-006

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Psychlogy > PSY 100-006 > Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 4 2 9 2 11
Sadie Threlkel
GPA 3.36

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About this Document

Last set of notes before Exam 1.
Introductory Psychology
Maeve Bronwyn O'Donnell
Class Notes
Psychology, PSY100
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadie Threlkel on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-006 at Colorado State University taught by Maeve Bronwyn O'Donnell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Psychology Notes 2/9 – 2/11 2/9 Drugs  How drugs work: ­Enter brain, changes how neurotransmitters function  Take drugs by use of oral ingestion (lasts longer), inhalation (not as long), injection (either  intramuscular or intravenous)   Tolerance and Withdrawals ­Need more to achieve the same effect after prolonged periods of use ­Withdrawal – side effect of discontinuing drug use  Substance Use Disorder  ­Addiction ­Reward pathway and pleasure center of brain  o Cravings, tolerance, withdrawal, life disruption, etc. ­Physical dependence (tolerance and withdrawal) ­Psychological dependence (cravings, etc.) Risk Factors  ­Biological – genetics neurotransmitter levels  ­ Psychological – stress sense of purpose, coping with other disorders  ­Social­Cultural influences – environment, acceptance, peer use/norms  Types of Drugs ­Depressants ­Stimulants ­Hallucinogens ­Others Depressants  ­depress central nervous system activity o Slow down body processes o Ex. Alcohol Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines ­Barbiturates o Phenobarbitals, Amytal ­ Benzodiazepines o Xanax, Valium, Atvian  ­Effects – help with anxiety, pain and sleep o Impair memory and judgement (similar to alcohol)  o High addiction potential  Opiates ­From poppy plant (morphine, codeine, etc.) o Heroin, Morphine, Opium  ­Synthetic Opiates o Vicodin, OxyContin, Percocet, Fentanyl ­Endogenous Opiates  o Endorphins (runner’s high) ­Effects – relaxation, affects memory, pain killer  Stimulants ­‘Uppers’ ­Stimulate – increases central nervous system activity  o Speeds up body processes ­Amphetamines  o ‘Speed’  o Derived from ephedrine­producing plant o Some ADHD medication – Adderall  ­Effects – hits dopamine receptors (euphoria) o Appetite suppression  o Dysphoria once they’ve worn off  o Can get sores, destroy teeth, psychosis risk  ­Cocaine  o Derived from coca plant  o Effects – strong euphoria, feeling very alive (flight or fight) o Crack cocaine  Processed – can smoke it   Hits harder and faster but doesn’t last long ­Caffeine o Most popular drug  o Biological effects – binds to adenosine receptors  ­Nicotine  o Biological effects – acetylcholine receptors Hallucinogens ­‘Psychedelics’  ­LSD o Synthesized by Albert Hoffman – 1943 o Very low active dose (need very little to get high) o Effects – closed eye visuals, sensory experience in the absence of stimuli  ­Others: Shrooms, DMT, Peyote, Salvia, research chemicals  Dissociatives   ­Mind and body detachment from environment ­Ketamine, PCP, DXM, Nitrous Oxide ­Effects vary – tranquillizing, disorienting, dissociation  Others – MDMA  ­‘Ecstasy,’ ‘Molly’ ­Biological effects – releases all ‘feel good’ chemicals in the brain  o Euphoria, mild psychedelic effects o Has potential therapeutic effects (testing at CU Boulder) ­Contamination o Almost always contaminated with something else Steroids  ­Anabolic Steroids ­Similar to testosterone  ­Many adverse side effects  Marijuana  ­Effects vary – sleepy, hungry, relaxation, euphoria  ­THC, CBD ­Medical properties – anti­nausea, anti­seizure, appetite stimulation, anti­anxiety ­Legalization Interaction Effects  ­Synergistic  o Ex. Marijuana + Alcohol, Alcohol + Cocaine ­Antagonistic  o Ex. Opiates + NARCAN (stimulant + depressant) ­Toxic Combinations  o Alcohol + Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines o Alcohol + Opiates o MDMA + anti­depressants ­Grapefruit  2/11 The Brain The Brain Stem – evolutionarily ‘oldest’ part of the brain  ­Medulla – basic life­support (heart beat and breathing) ­Reticular Formation – affects arousal – stimuli (not sexual) ­Thalamus – relay of station for sensory systems (except smell) ­Ex. Mike the Headless Chicken – brainstem still intact – lived without head fpr many  months Cerebellum  ­‘Little brain’ ­Responsible for motor coordination  Cerebral Cortex  ­Evolutionarily ‘newest’  ­Our large cortex is what makes us ‘human’  Each Hemisphere is differentiated into four different lobes: ­Frontal Lobe ­Parietal Lobe ­Occipital Lobe  ­Temporal Lobe  Frontal Lobe  ­Primary Role – judgement, planning, self­control (executive functioning), personality ­Contains:  o Motor cortex – generating movements, speech production  Parietal Lobe  ­Primary Role – sensory input and special awareness Occipital Lobe  ­Primary Role – visual processing  ­Contains: o Visual Cortex – assembles visual input into meaningful info  Temporal Lobe  ­Primary role – auditory and language processing  ­Contains: o Auditory Cortex  ­ processes audio info Comprehending and Producing Speech  Broca’s Area ­Left Hemisphere, Frontal Lobe (Motor Area) ­Damage = can’t produce speech anymore  Wernicke’s Area ­Left Hemisphere, Temporal Lobe (Auditory Complex) ­Damage = can’t comprehend speech  Broca’s Aphasia Patient  ­Can’t make full sentences, frustrated Wernicke’s Aphasia Patient  ­Stuck on one subject – what the know best Split Brain – Callosotomy  ­Corpus Callosum cut  ­Left side can describe what the patient sees, right hand draws what he sees (with left  vision, can’t describe what he draws) Hemispherectomy – Half a brain  ­Ex. Jody Miller Consciousness  Dual Processing  ­Consciousness – serial/sequential processing  ­Unconsciousness – parallel processing  ­‘We know more than we think we know we know’ ­Ex. Blind Sight o Visual Processing takes two pathways after brainstem  (thalamus) 1. Visual Cortex (‘what’) 2. Parietal Cortex (‘where’) Selective Attention  ­Our awareness of one small piece of our environment  ­Cocktail party effect


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