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Chapter 4 - Tissues

by: Kaitlin Notetaker

Chapter 4 - Tissues BIOL 243 001

Kaitlin Notetaker
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These notes cover week one of the next section. It covers the end of chapter 3 - translation and the beginning of chapter 4 - connective tissue proper and cartilage.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Lewis Bowman
Class Notes
chapter 4, human anatomy and physiology 1, HA, biology 243, bio 243, Lewis Bowman, bowman, tissues




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 02/14/16
Monday, February 15, y Translation (end of Ch. 3) Process of Translation (occurs in cytoplasm) ­ • there are 3 RNAs involved in decoding the messenger RNA ­ 1. ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ­ forms part of the ribosome • remember ­ ribosomes = RNA + protein ­ 2. messenger RNA (mRNA) ­ contains the information for the sequence of amino  acids for a specific protein • the code is a 3 nucleotide base code  ­ 3 nucleotides is a codon • each arrangement decodes into a specific amino acid ­ 64 possible codons but only 20 amino acids (not a 1 ­1 correspondence • 61 code for specific AA, 3 code for a stop signal for translation and  the peptide will fall off (like a period at the end of the sentence) ­ codes  are degenerate ­ more than one codon can code for the same  amino acid ­ table of amino acid possibilities for each codon ­ figure 3.36 (slides) ­ 3. transfer RNA (tRNA) ­ has a clover­leaf structure  • two important regions of the tRNA ­ 1. anticodon ­ complimentary to the codon  • its the complimentary base (codon is A anticodon is U) to form base pair 2.  ­ place where amino acid is attached  1 Monday, February 15, y • different tRNA for different codons  • how does it work? ­ tRNA  with attached growing polypeptide is bound to the ribosome  ­ next  tRNA (with its appropriate amino acid) will bind to adjacent site  peptide ­  bond is formed ­ ribosome moves down the mRNA  ­ when  the ribosome comes to a stop sequence, there is no tRNA to bind to it, and the peptide will be released  • only one specific tRNA works for each codon, no other tRNA will fit (like  cinderella’s slippers) 2 Monday, February 15, y Tissues (Chapter 4) - Epithelial Tissue • located on “free surfaces” ­ not in contact with other cells - inside of digestive tract, blood vessels, respiratory tract and skin • functions for protection, secretion of mucus and glands, and absorption for  digestion  •  characteristics - free surfaces ­ top layer of the cells basement -  membrane ­ located directly below the cells • extracellular ­ made of proteins and carbohydrates - serves  as a barrier to separate epithelial tissue and what is underneath  - litt intercellular space ­ cells are very close and touching  - no blood vessels ­ no capillaries passing through, capillaries instead are located  near basement membrane  • nutrients diffuse through basement membrane to supply epithelial tissue • Classification of Epithelia • each has two names to be classified by: cell layers, shape - based  on cell layers: •  1. simple ­ one layer thick - all cells come in contact with basement membrane and free surface     2. stratified ­ the cells are in layers (thicker, stronger) - some  cells touch the basement membrane, some touch surface, some come in contact with neither 3 Monday, February 15, y •    3. pseudostratified ­ some cells do not reach the surface, but all come in  contact with the basement membrane - based  on cell shapes ­ at the free surface •    1. squamous ­ flat •    2. columnar ­ taller than wide, like a column •    3. cuboidal ­ shaped like a cube • Classification Types      imple   squamous ­ one layer thick of flat cells (very thin) • function: diffusion and filtration  where protection is not important • location: in the air sacs of the lungs ­ where gas exchange occurs - capillaries ­ small thin blood vessels so blood can diffuse • two special types: endothelium ­     ­ found in the lining of blood vessels ­   mesothelium  ­ found in serous membranes and covering organs      imple   columnar ­ one layer with tall cells, lots of cytoplasm • function: secretion and absorption; ciliated type propels mucus • location: the digestive tract, gallbladder, excretory ducts of glands; ciliated lines bronchi, uterine tubes and uterus      imple   cuboidal ­ one layer and cells shaped like a cube, lots of cytoplasm • function: secretion and absorption • location: in the salivary glands, sweat glands, ovaries and kidney tubules      tratifie  squamous ­ thick epithelium where the top layer is flat  • function: protection where friction takes place 4 Monday, February 15, y • location: skin, mouth, vagina, anus pseudostratified        columnar ­ ciliated,  •   function: secrete mucus and propulsion of mucus •   location: in respiratory tract (sinuses) ­   ransitional ­ can change shape, stretch (resembles stratified squamous and  cuboidal) • location: the bladder and ureter  • function: stretches and permits swelling of the bladder for/by urine • Classifying by Function or Location ­   ndothelium  ­ found in the lining of blood vessels  • simple squamous cells      cus   membranes ­ secretes mucin (slimy stuff that enables surface to be moist  and slippery ) • goblet cells found here ­ synthesize and secrete mucin       taneous   membrane ­ found in the “skin”       rous   membrane ­ combination of connective and epithelial tissues  • like a water balloon  • outer wall is made up of simple squamous and  • surrounds heart, stomach, intestines, liver       andular   epithelium ­  • 1. endocrine glands ­ not connected to a free surface, secretions are absorbed  into the blood stream  - when  they are absorbed into the blood, then transported through the rest of  the body  5 Monday, February 15, y • 2. exocrine glands ­ directly connected to a free surface, act locally  sweat -  glands ­ connected to skin and deposit sweat onto skin but doesn't  affect eye balls (local) - 3 classifications according to mode of secretion     merocrine ­ secretions pass through the membrane (exocytosis) and cell  is not harmed  - ex: sweat glands, salivary glands, pancreas (with digestive juices), etc     holocrine ­ accumulate secretion and basically die and release the  substance  - ex: sebaceous glands ­ secretes seban (fatty, oil like substance)     apocrine ­ a part of the cell will bud off - ex: mammary glands  Classifying by structure  - •  duct structure  - 1.simple ­ duct does not branch • intestinal glands - 2.compound ­ duct branches • stomach glands •  structure of the secretory parts - 1.tubular ­ does not branch • oil glands - 2.alveolar ­ duct branches • mammary and salivary glands  - Connective Tissue 6 Monday, February 15, y • general characteristics:  location ­      : found in many places • fat, tendons, fills body spaces, attaches skin to the rest of the body ­    unction : varied • protection, support (skeletal system), binds things together, storage of fat characteristics         • very abundant ­ lots in our bodies • cells are not close together, widely spaced • good blood supply ­ lots of blood vessels going through the tissue     keup  : • cells ­ different types of cells in the different types of connective tissue • extracellular matrix  - ground  substance ­ could be very watery or very hard - fibers ­ different types of connective tissues have different amounts of each  type of fibers • 1. collagenous fibers ­ made of collagen, large, strong, white • 2. reticular fibers ­ relatively short and branched • 3. elastic fibers ­ can stretch and coil • A) Connective Tissue Proper ­ class of connective tissue with subclasses - made  up of fibroblast cells which makes and secretes the proteins that make up  the fibers (or extracellular matrix) - 1.loose connective tissue ­ few, widely spread fibers • 1. areolar ­ has a watery, brown substance and relatively few fibers (very  abundant) 7 Monday, February 15, y - most  of the fibers are collagenous  fucntions - : binds the skin to underlying tissues, surrounds blood vessels, fills  body spaces • 2. adipose tissue ­ basically fat, has watery brown substance • 3. reticular ­ high concentration (large amounts) or reticular fibers function - : forms skeleton and serves as a base for other cells  - location: lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen) - 2.dense connective tissue ­ dense, closer together • 1. regular ­ primarily collagen fibers which are parallel, few elastic fibers, very  strong - does  not heal very well because does not have good blood supply - function: attaches muscles to bones and bones to bones - location: tendons, ligaments • 2. irregular ­ contains collagen fibers which are interwoven irregularly  function - : withstands tension in different directions for structural strength - location: organ/joint fibrous capsules, dermis • 3. dense connective tissue ­ large amounts of elastic fibers - function: allows recoil, maintains blood flow through arteries (pulsatile), aids  recoil of lungs  - location: vocal cords, surrounding large arteries, aorta  • B) Cartilage ­ cells: chondroblasts (more immature, just developing) - characteristic: • has a little bit of “give” unlike bones (hyaline) • cells:  8 Monday, February 15, y - chondroblasts  are more immature and just developing ch - ondrocytes are more mature  • extracellular matrix ­ ground substance is made of chondrin ­ firm, hard but  pliable - holes  in the cartilage ­ lacunae  • contains the cells  • no direct blood supply  ­ there is a membrane surrounding known as the  perichondrium which contains blood vessels - nutrients must diffuse into the cartilage and waste diffuses out three -  types of cartilage     1. hyaline cartilage ­ firm but pliable, contains closely packed collagenous  fibers and glassy appearance - function : supports and reinforces ­ resilient and cushioning, resists  compressive stress - location :  • costal cartilage involved in attaching the ribs to sternum • reticular cartilage at the ends of bones, provides smooth surface for the  joints • in trachea so when we breathe in, the air comes in without collapsing     2. fibrocartilage ­ more elastic fibers than hyaline so it is compressible (like a  mattress ­ if you push down it springs back) - location : intervertebral discs ­ if you jump, the fibrocartilage will compress  then go back to its normal shape     3. elastic cartilage ­ very high concentration of elastic fibers - function : allows flexibility but still maintains shape/structure 9 Monday, February 15, y - location: external ear, epiglottis 10


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