Week 3 Notes - Intro to Psychology (PSYCH 1101)
Week 3 Notes - Intro to Psychology (PSYCH 1101) PSYCH 1101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Mays on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Georgia Regents University taught by Verlaque, L. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia Regents University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
1/26/2016 – 1/28/2016 Week 3 Intro to Psychology Notes Structure of a neuron and the brain Cell body (soma), dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, terminal branches Threshold limit – all or nothing, “All or Nothing Effect” Action potential – sends it down the line Sends stuff out and down the neuron A wave of information! Synaptic gap – terminal branches and dendrites begin Neurotransmitters go across gap Receptor sites – specific and fit in, filled action potential Pop out – reuptake, host neuron sucks it back Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Not enough serotonin, prevents reuptake by host neuron so it increases chance to go back into receptor sites/gap More neurons firing, same rate and intensity Nervous System 2 Main Branches Peripheral – Autonomic (involuntary) and Somatic (voluntary) Central – Brain and spinal cord 1/26/2016 – 1/28/2016 Autonomic – Sympathetic (fight or flight) Parasympathetic (rest and digest) Sympathetic Body prioritizes Shifts down some systems Heightens some things Focuses energy Types of Neurons 1) Sensory – take info from body to central nervous system 2) Motor – take info from central nervous system to body 3) Interneurons – brain and spinal cord, there are billions of these Some interneurons in spinal cord can make decisions for protection! Neural network – same experience, path happens over and over to create inner network of neurons Sexual dysfunction related to network problems Endocrine System – blood stream, hormones Pituitary gland controlled by Hypothalamus 3 Main Areas of the Brain 1) Old brain Brain stem Medulla – heart beat and breathing, at the bottom Thalamus – top of brain stem, sensory switchboard, takes signal and routes it out, crosses over sides Reticular formation – ultimate alarm clock, alertness, filter information, selective awareness Hypothalamus – pituitary’s boss, homeostasis, maintain body temperature and regulates other things 2) Cerebellum – voluntary movement, nonverbal memory, “little brain” 3) Limbic – Border brain Hippocampus – episodic memory 1/26/2016 – 1/28/2016 Amygdala – emotions 4 lobes, 2 hemispheres with 4 lobes Thumb vs. thigh – thumb has more intricate motions, more complex, so it gets more “real estate” Tongue too, more sensations so there’s more space Bark of brain – cerebral cortex 75% not associated – association areas, we don’t really know but they integrate information Brain plasticity – it can adapt, reroutes functions to other areas of the brain Corpus callosum – fibers connecting hemispheres Whole brain seizures – split brain procedure, cut Corpus callosum but not entirely, not the entirely tho, not the Optic Chiasm (or they would go blind) Behavior Genetics – heredity and environment, study of nature and nurture Chromosomes – 46 total, 23 pairs, XY males, XX female DNA comprised of genes Genome – entire collection of genes, every living thing has one 50% banana 9699.5% chimpanzee 99.999% humans .001% difference between humans Genes have a tendency to turn off and on Changed by environment Or by other genes Hormones can change genetic presentation 1/26/2016 – 1/28/2016 So we study twins Identical twins 1 egg, 1 sperm Zygote splits off into 2 different zygotes They could split again, 5 identical quintuplets Multiple eggs – fraternal at a later age Fraternal link runs in families Release multiple eggs at once Identical – personality, behaviors, IQ, rates of divorce Adopted out – similar interests, attitudes, and personalities Similar environments tho because there are standards for families that adopt More like adopted parents in ideologies, religion, values, manners, attitudes, and habits External environment can change expression Rabbits can change fur color, triggered by the environment Epigenetics – internal environment can change expression Obesity – store fat differently, biological children overweight, hard to lose Turns of and off certain genes, health and state that you are in when you get pregnant could be passed down Evolutionary Psychology – evolutionary principles explain how and why we are the same Fear of animals, phobia – based on what was likely to help you survive Toddlers – stranger anxiety when learning how to walk 1/26/2016 – 1/28/2016 Critiques – hindsight bias, no data Natural selection and evolutionary theory