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BSC 215- Week 6 Notes

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 215- Week 6 Notes BSC 215

Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7

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A collection of notes from the 6th week of BSC 215!
Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Dr. Jason Pienaar
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/14/16
BSC 215- Week 6 Notes Lecture 8 -Histology- !!The study of the normal structure of tissues!! Tissue:  Groups of cells, similar in structure that cooperate  Cells embedded in an extracellular matrix of ground substance and fibrous proteins 4 Primary classes: 1. Epithelial a. Everywhere you have an interaction between inside and outside world b. Glands 2. Connective a. Tendons, ligaments, bone, blood 3. Nervous a. Communication 4. Muscular a. Skeletal, muscle, cardiac TYPES 1. EPITHELIAL a. Sheets of tightly packed cells b. Little visible extracellular matrix c. Coverings and linings or glands 2. Connective a. Loosely scattered cells b. ECM most prominent structural component i. Don’t see many nuclei c. Bind, support, protect, connect 3. Nervous a. Exhibit many processes b. Mostly fluid extracellular matrix c. Cells that process and transmit info 4. Muscular a. Long, cylindrical, spindle more than 1 nucleus b. Little visual ECM more cells= more functionality c. Contractile generate force Ground Substance -gelatinous to rubbery because:  Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) o Charged- attract H2O  Proteoglycan o Bottle brush like structures o Slow pathogens, connect extracellular matrix to cell membrane  Glycoprotein o Bind plasma membrane to ECM collagen and proteoglycan Fibrous Protein  Collagenous fibers o 25% of body proteins o tough, resistant stretching  Reticular Fibers o Thin, collagen fibers with proteoglycan coat o Form spongelike framework for spleen/lymph  Elastic Fibers LO 3. Recognize major human cellular morphologies and describe structures that connect Squamous: o often epithelial Cuboidal o Cubed o Glandular function Columnar o Rectangular Polygonal o Often columnar from top Stellate o Usually nerve o Easy to confuse with adipose Spheroidal o Spherical shape o White blood cells Discoid Fusiform o Like squamous but longer o Smooth muscle Fibrous o Muscle o Striations o A lot longer than wide Cell junctions: physical connections between tissue cells *all cells (except blood) anchored to each other or matrix by junctions  Tight junctions  Gap junctions  Desmosomes o Leaky Tight junctions- integral membrane proteins of adjacent cells lock together to form an impermeable seal Desmosomes- interweave between cells and connect to intermediate filaments within cells, resist mechanical stress Gap junctions- interlinked pores LO 4. Be able to identify and characterize different types of epithelial based on distinguishing characteristics 2 Broad Types: -coverings and linings -glands General characteristics: 1. Polarity: a. Apical side- outside b. Basal side- facing inside 2. Specialized contacts a. Tight/gap junctions b. Desmosomes 3. Avascular a. No blood supply must be connected to something with blood supply (connective tissue) 4. Supported by connective tissue a. Mainly for blood b. Reticular lamina and basal lamina= basal membrane, blood vessels 5. Innervated a. Has nerves 6. Regenerate SIMPLE EPITHELIA 4 types 1. Simple squamous (flat, scaly) 2. Simple cuboidal (square, round) 3. Simple columnar (flat, narrow) 4. Pseudostratified columnar a. Goblet cells Stratified: 2-20 layers  only deepest layer contacts basal membrane 4 kinds:  Stratified squamous  Stratified cuboidal  Stratified columnar  Transitional FUNCTIONS:  Protection (skin, stomach lining, immune function)  Secretion (enzymes, hormones)  Excretion (CO2 in lungs)  Absorption (small intestine)  Filtration (kidneys and blood)  Sensation (nerve endings) LO6. Exocrine ducts Endocrine no ducts Goblet cells: GI & respiratory, secrete mucous TYPES of glands:  Merocrine: products released as vesicles during exocytosis o Tear glands, pancreas, gastric glands, sweat  Reusable  Apocrine: similar to merocrine, but part of cytoplasm broken off along with vesicles from apical formation  Holocrine: cells accumulate product, then rupture to release Lecture 8 -Connective Tissue- LO 1. Describe the general functions and properties of connective tissues Bind organs together o Tendons: musle to bone o Ligaments: bone to bone o Adipose: holds eyes and kidneys in place Support o Bones: support body o Cartilage: support but flexible Physical Protection Immune Protection o Leukocytes o Loose connective: battleground of matrix under skin for interactions Movement o Bones: provide levers, cartilages move vocal chords Storage o Adipose: major energy reserve o Bones; Ca & P reserve Heat production o Brown fat: catabolism generates heat in infants/kids Transport o Blood: transports nutrients, gases, hormones, waste Properties (GENERAL) Usually cells occupy less space than matrix Cells often NOT in direct contact with each other Matrix exensive role in function Very great in vascularity ALL tissues originate from mesenchyme LO 2. Compare/Contrast roles of individual cells and fiber types with connective tissue Connective Tissue Proper Fibroblasts produce/maintain fibers of ground substance Adipocytes fat cells Mast cells immune Phagocytes immune Cartilage  Produced by chondrocytes o secrete the matrix o become trapped in lacunae little innervation and vascularization o relies on perichondrium Bone ECM similar to cartilage, more collagen and nutrients Osteoblasts secrete matrix Matrix: deposited in layers lamellae Canalicule: delicate channels that connect lacunae Osteoblasts: dissolve bone tissue in remodeling Blood Only liquid connective tissue Ground substance= plasma Cells= erythrocytes and leukocytes LO 3. Classify connective tissues Defining charcteristics: -derived form common origin -ECM extensive role in function -identified by comp. and ECM Aveolar All 5 cell types All 3 fiber types Abundant Dense Regular Closely packed, parallel fibers Tendons and ligaments Dense Irregular Random directions Dermis, organs, nerve cartilage Dence Elastic Random. Parallel Adipose Adipocytes Highly vascularized Constantly synthesized and hydrolyzed Reticular Spongelike Cartilage Lot of fluid Tough but flexible


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