BSC 215- Week 6 Notes
BSC 215- Week 6 Notes BSC 215
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
BSC 215- Week 6 Notes Lecture 8 -Histology- !!The study of the normal structure of tissues!! Tissue: Groups of cells, similar in structure that cooperate Cells embedded in an extracellular matrix of ground substance and fibrous proteins 4 Primary classes: 1. Epithelial a. Everywhere you have an interaction between inside and outside world b. Glands 2. Connective a. Tendons, ligaments, bone, blood 3. Nervous a. Communication 4. Muscular a. Skeletal, muscle, cardiac TYPES 1. EPITHELIAL a. Sheets of tightly packed cells b. Little visible extracellular matrix c. Coverings and linings or glands 2. Connective a. Loosely scattered cells b. ECM most prominent structural component i. Don’t see many nuclei c. Bind, support, protect, connect 3. Nervous a. Exhibit many processes b. Mostly fluid extracellular matrix c. Cells that process and transmit info 4. Muscular a. Long, cylindrical, spindle more than 1 nucleus b. Little visual ECM more cells= more functionality c. Contractile generate force Ground Substance -gelatinous to rubbery because: Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) o Charged- attract H2O Proteoglycan o Bottle brush like structures o Slow pathogens, connect extracellular matrix to cell membrane Glycoprotein o Bind plasma membrane to ECM collagen and proteoglycan Fibrous Protein Collagenous fibers o 25% of body proteins o tough, resistant stretching Reticular Fibers o Thin, collagen fibers with proteoglycan coat o Form spongelike framework for spleen/lymph Elastic Fibers LO 3. Recognize major human cellular morphologies and describe structures that connect Squamous: o often epithelial Cuboidal o Cubed o Glandular function Columnar o Rectangular Polygonal o Often columnar from top Stellate o Usually nerve o Easy to confuse with adipose Spheroidal o Spherical shape o White blood cells Discoid Fusiform o Like squamous but longer o Smooth muscle Fibrous o Muscle o Striations o A lot longer than wide Cell junctions: physical connections between tissue cells *all cells (except blood) anchored to each other or matrix by junctions Tight junctions Gap junctions Desmosomes o Leaky Tight junctions- integral membrane proteins of adjacent cells lock together to form an impermeable seal Desmosomes- interweave between cells and connect to intermediate filaments within cells, resist mechanical stress Gap junctions- interlinked pores LO 4. Be able to identify and characterize different types of epithelial based on distinguishing characteristics 2 Broad Types: -coverings and linings -glands General characteristics: 1. Polarity: a. Apical side- outside b. Basal side- facing inside 2. Specialized contacts a. Tight/gap junctions b. Desmosomes 3. Avascular a. No blood supply must be connected to something with blood supply (connective tissue) 4. Supported by connective tissue a. Mainly for blood b. Reticular lamina and basal lamina= basal membrane, blood vessels 5. Innervated a. Has nerves 6. Regenerate SIMPLE EPITHELIA 4 types 1. Simple squamous (flat, scaly) 2. Simple cuboidal (square, round) 3. Simple columnar (flat, narrow) 4. Pseudostratified columnar a. Goblet cells Stratified: 2-20 layers only deepest layer contacts basal membrane 4 kinds: Stratified squamous Stratified cuboidal Stratified columnar Transitional FUNCTIONS: Protection (skin, stomach lining, immune function) Secretion (enzymes, hormones) Excretion (CO2 in lungs) Absorption (small intestine) Filtration (kidneys and blood) Sensation (nerve endings) LO6. Exocrine ducts Endocrine no ducts Goblet cells: GI & respiratory, secrete mucous TYPES of glands: Merocrine: products released as vesicles during exocytosis o Tear glands, pancreas, gastric glands, sweat Reusable Apocrine: similar to merocrine, but part of cytoplasm broken off along with vesicles from apical formation Holocrine: cells accumulate product, then rupture to release Lecture 8 -Connective Tissue- LO 1. Describe the general functions and properties of connective tissues Bind organs together o Tendons: musle to bone o Ligaments: bone to bone o Adipose: holds eyes and kidneys in place Support o Bones: support body o Cartilage: support but flexible Physical Protection Immune Protection o Leukocytes o Loose connective: battleground of matrix under skin for interactions Movement o Bones: provide levers, cartilages move vocal chords Storage o Adipose: major energy reserve o Bones; Ca & P reserve Heat production o Brown fat: catabolism generates heat in infants/kids Transport o Blood: transports nutrients, gases, hormones, waste Properties (GENERAL) Usually cells occupy less space than matrix Cells often NOT in direct contact with each other Matrix exensive role in function Very great in vascularity ALL tissues originate from mesenchyme LO 2. Compare/Contrast roles of individual cells and fiber types with connective tissue Connective Tissue Proper Fibroblasts produce/maintain fibers of ground substance Adipocytes fat cells Mast cells immune Phagocytes immune Cartilage Produced by chondrocytes o secrete the matrix o become trapped in lacunae little innervation and vascularization o relies on perichondrium Bone ECM similar to cartilage, more collagen and nutrients Osteoblasts secrete matrix Matrix: deposited in layers lamellae Canalicule: delicate channels that connect lacunae Osteoblasts: dissolve bone tissue in remodeling Blood Only liquid connective tissue Ground substance= plasma Cells= erythrocytes and leukocytes LO 3. Classify connective tissues Defining charcteristics: -derived form common origin -ECM extensive role in function -identified by comp. and ECM Aveolar All 5 cell types All 3 fiber types Abundant Dense Regular Closely packed, parallel fibers Tendons and ligaments Dense Irregular Random directions Dermis, organs, nerve cartilage Dence Elastic Random. Parallel Adipose Adipocytes Highly vascularized Constantly synthesized and hydrolyzed Reticular Spongelike Cartilage Lot of fluid Tough but flexible
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