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Chemistry Week of 2-1

by: Notetaker

Chemistry Week of 2-1 20002

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Lecture notes of week 2-1
Principles of Chemistry I
Charles Lake
Class Notes
Chemistry, General Chemistry
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20002 at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Charles Lake in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Week of Feb. 1, 2016 1) Absolute Temperatures a. Absolute temperature: when entropy (disorder) is perfect; every atom is doing the same thing i. Particles stop moving ii. Can’t go below 0 0 0 iii. (-459 F) (-273 C) (0Kelvin) 2) Converting between Celsius and Fahrenheit a. Boiling water: 100 C/ 212 F 0 0 0 b. Freezing water: 0 C/ 32 F c. 100 C/180 F= 9/5 d. The average nightly temperature on Earth is 2.0 C. What is that in F? 0 0 0 0 0 0 i. (2.0 C) (100 F/180 C) + 32 F= 36 F ii. Add 32 CF, subtract 32 FC 3) Density a. Density: mass per unit volume i. Liquid: g/mL ii. Solid: g/cm3 iii. Gas: g/L b. D=m/v c. Lower density materials float past more dense materials i. Diet soda vs. regular soda ii. Gasoline: D=0.66g/mL iii. Water: D=1.00 g/mL 4) Specific Gravity a. Specific gravity: density of substance (g/mL)/ density of water @ same temp (g/mL) i. (g/mL) cancels out ii. No units b. Density is always measured with a temperature Chapter 2: Components of Matter 1) Dalton’s Atomic Theory a. All matter consists of tiny particles called atoms. b. Matter cannot be created, destroyed, or converted i. Chemically ii. Human can with nuclear power c. All atoms of a particular element have the same chemical properties. d. Atoms of different elements can combine in simple, whole number rations to form compounds. e. Chemical reactions involve separation, joining or rearranging of atoms. 2) Rutherford’s Alpha-Scattering Experiments a. Thought atoms were electron blobs b. Gold foil experiments i. Beams bounced back when they hit the nucleus 3) Elements a. Element: simplest substance b. Element type: number of protons 4) Atoms a. Atom: smallest part of an element b. Too small to bounce back light i. Why humans cannot see them c. Subatomic particles i. Protons: repel each other within nucleus (+) ii. Neutrons: hold protons together within nucleus (–) iii. Electrons: virtually massless (no charge) 5) Atoms vs. Ions a. Atoms: electrically neutral b. Ions: electrically charged i. Cations: positive charge (atom loses electron) ii. Anions: negative charge (atom gains electron) c. Atoms tend to become ions to obtain energy and gain chemical stability. 6) Nucleus and Electron Clouds a. Nucleus: all protons and neutrons; all mass of an atom i. Very dense and compact b. Electron cloud: contains all electrons i. Contributor to atomic radii ii. Very diffuse (mostly empty space) c. 3626Fe2+ i. Fe symbol ii. 26 atomic number (number of protons) iii. 56 neutrons and protons (mass number) iv. 2+ charge (2 less electrons) (#p-#e) 7) Elements found in nuclear reactions a. Massively large difference in energy than chemical reactions b. 3 major conservation laws i. Conservation of Atomic Number ii. Conservation of Mass Number iii. Conservation of Energy 8) Nuclear Particles a. Alpha: 42e 0 b. Beta: -1e0 c. Gamma: 0Y i. Energy emitted due to loss of mass during nuclear reaction d. Neutron: 10N 1 e. Proton: 10 f. Positron: 1e positive electrons 9) Origin of the Universe a. Gravitation accretion: caused H atoms to coalesce as large gas clouds i. Affected density and temperature


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