Popular in Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries
Popular in Kinesiology
Alea Nicole Vick
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Christine Samson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
KINS 2100 Week 5 Notes 02/14/2016 ▯ Lightening Safety (start notes here) Very preventable yet number 2 cause of death by weather phenomena Emergency action plans must be set o Must nominate an individual to make the call that it is no longer safe to be outside, monitoring the weather service, and criteria to make decision to no longer play If you can’t find a building, go in a car; if neither is available, stay away from the highest point If your hair begins to stand up on your hands and the back of the neck you are in imminent danger and should crouch on the ground Flash-to-Bang ratio: estimates distance away from storm o Count the number of seconds from the time you see lightening to the time you hear thunder and divide the number by 5 o If you count 30 seconds or less, you should already be inside Should wait at least 30 minutes following last clap of thunder or lightening strike before returning to the field If struck by lightening, the only way to ensure a person can recover from strike is to restart the heart ▯ Circadian Dysrhythmia- Jet Lag De-synchronization of biological and biophysical time clock Individual may consider fatigue, headaches, digestive issues, changes in BP and HR; essentially anything controlled by hormones that is released in the body at multiple intervals Younger individuals will adjust more rapidly To prevent: o Depart well rested o Adjust yourself to the time zone you are traveling to o Eat and avoid dehydration o Caffeine o Avoid alcohol ▯ ▯ Chapter 4: Conditioning Techniques ▯ Principles of Conditioning and Training Safety- proper form Proper warm up/cool down Motivation Overload and SAID principle o SAID = Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands: pushing your muscle to a boundary but not too far so the muscle can get stronger and not push the limit Consistency/routine- does the individual have a said ritual and are they going through their routine to get to their goal Progression, intensity, specificity Relaxation ▯ Warm-up Dynamic movements that help with range of motion and ultimately performance Done as a precaution against musculoskeletal injury or muscle soreness Prepares the body for work: waking up the muscles, pumping blood through heart and muscles Should last at least 10-15 minutes resulting in effects that last for 45 minutes ▯ Cool-down Essential component of workout although often ignored Lasts about 5-10 minutes Results in decreased muscle soreness following training if you stretch after workout ▯ Training Techniques ▯ Cardiorespiratory endurance Level of improvement will be determined by initial levels Continuous aerobic exercise will increase endurance o At least 3x a week to see results o Intensity must be high enough to elevate max HR to 70% of max Max HR = 220-age o At least 20 minutes Interval Training o A set interval of maximal effort alternating with a shorter period of active recovery o Allows for higher intensity training at short intervals over an extended period of time Speed Play = cross country running o Intervals based off of pace and speed of the terrain you are on o In order to be effective individuals’ HR must be higher than minimal effort o More popular in off-season ▯ Muscular Strength, Power, and Endurance If strength is increased, muscular endurance is also increased Fast Twitch vs. Slow Twitch: fibers within a particular motor unit display different contractile abilities o Slow Twitch- fatigue resistant fiber types Individuals are better at endurance type activities Time necessary to produce force is greater Aerobic type activities o Fast Twitch- fatigue quickly because burn through oxygen quickly Anaerobic in nature Can produce high amounts of force in a short period of time but can’t do it over a long period of time o All muscles contain both types of fibers but the ratio of the fibers varies depending on how much you work out each fiber Skeletal Muscle Contractions o Isometric- muscle contracts to increase tension but no change in muscle length Ex. Pushing against a wall o Concentric- muscle shortens in length with increased tension to overcome resistance Ex. Bicep curls o Eccentric- muscle lengthens as contracting due to resistance being greater than muscle force Best way to gain strength ▯ Resistance Training Progressive resistance exercise In order to gain strength, overload principle must be applied o Increase intensity so the muscle is able to adapt each time Calisthenics: workouts without using equipment o Ex. Sit ups, push ups ▯ Functional Training Integrated exercises that mimic movements they would encounter in sport Helps with strength and the ability to control muscles in certain movement patterns Kinetic chain concept: all limbs are connected together, they must all work together and move together; if there is something wrong in one limb it will affect all the other parts of the body Must train in 3 planes of motion: o Frontal o Sagittal o Transverse ▯ Core Stabilization Training Includes abdominal muscles, erector spinae, control of lumbar spine in relationship to pelvis and femur, center of gravity All work together to control extremities Goal is to help with dynamic postural control o Important to remember to focus on back muscles as well ▯ Plyometric Exercise Rapid eccentric contraction followed by rapid concentric contraction Takes advantage of muscles stretch-shortening cycle o The energy stored within muscles id used o Takes elasticity of muscles and uses it to your advantage Want the time between each contraction to be as short as possible = more explosive ▯ Training for the Female Critical for females, helps prevent osteoporosis Remarkable gains are experienced initially due to enhanced nervous system and muscle interaction Following initial gains, plateau occurs Can lift heavy without gaining a lot of bulk because of lower testosterone levels ▯ Strength Training in Prepubescent and Adolescents Must be monitored in order to avoid poor form o Close supervision and instruction Good for children because it enhances body image Strength gains can occur without a lot of muscle bulk Calisthenics are best for these individuals o Progressions based off of physical maturity ▯ Flexibility vs. Strength Must exist together Mobility and strength must be worked on through entire range o Helps prevent injury in the long run Many factors can limit flexibility ▯ Agonist vs. Antagonist Muscles Agonist: muscle that produces movement Antagonist: in order for movement to occur it must stretch o Agonist and antagonist work together to produce smooth coordinated movements o Functional training assists and helps perfect coordinated movements ▯ Range of Motion (ROM) Active ROM- someone who moves themselves through a ROM Passive ROM- individual relaxes while trainer takes them to the end range o Signifies flexibility or strength issues o Must look for end field—if someone doesn’t have the right end field it could signify something is wrong in the joint ▯ Effects of Stretching Lengthening in tissue depends on what the brain tells you Non-contractile collagen and elastin that allow recovery after stretched to a certain point Stretching Techniques o Ballistic: bouncing movements at the end range in which repetitive contractions of agonist work to stretch antagonist muscle Not safe for individuals because it could trigger an injury because tendon reflexes are activated and it protects itself to not go past end point o Dynamic Stretching: mimics whatever is done in activity o Static Stretching: can be done with a partner or a towel Putting stretched muscle all the way to it’s range and holding it Supposed to stretch until it’s uncomfortable and then release stress o Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): a basic stretch which is held for a certain period of time, the individual contracts and you hold, they then relax, and it can be pushed past their end range o Stretching Neural Structure: detects muscle tightness and neural tension o Stretching Fascia: it is possible for fascia to limit motion; can be performed manually using a foam roller Pilates and yoga are good techniques for strength and flexibility ▯ Periodization in Training and Conditioning Training differently from the off-season and in-season Achieve peak performance by gearing certain time frames with certain goals Goal is to decrease injuries Macrocycle = complete training cycle o The big picture o Within this cycle there are divisions in which the training might be changed Shown with different goals Mesocycles = periods within the macrocycle o Transition period: following the last competition, early off- season o Preparatory period: off-season where you prepare by increasing strength, speed, etc. o Different sets of weeks have different goals in order to achieve better performance o Competition period: goals are to maintain levels of fitness achieved in the preparatory season May incorporate microcycles Cross Training: training for a sport with substitutions of alternative activities o Done in order to prevent burnout of athlete o Useful in transition and preparatory periods Goal is to stop before the pre-season starts ▯ ▯ Chapter 11: Psychosocial Intervention for Sports Injuries and Illness ▯ Psychological Response to Injury Each patient deals with injury differently Severity of injury and length of rehab o Should consider how long it will take to rehab an injury ▯ Reactive Phases: 3 reactive phases occur after injury Reaction to injury Reaction to rehabilitation o Must identify a lot f things during this process in order to help them prepare to play Reaction to return to play or termination of career Kubler-Ross’s Model of Reaction to Death and Dying (often linked to injury as well) o Denial o Anger o Bargaining: “this for that” o Depression o Acceptance Must consider: o Past history o Coping skills: determine whether they have coping skills to deal with stress o Social support o Personal traits Most of the time emotions are uncontrollable ▯ The Athlete and the Sociological Response to Injury Following long term rehab the athlete may feel lonely/alienated from team Views of involvement and interaction with coaches and athletes may be disrupted Relationships may become strained o Important to make the athlete feel like they still contribute to the team ▯ Social Support A way to help the athlete is to make them aware of other resources to cope with their injury Sports specific drills must be incorporated in rehab to make it more exciting for them ▯ Predictors of Injury There is no evidence of one personality types, but there are traits that are common in people who have injuries o Risk takers o Lack ability to cope with stress associated risks o Someone who’s aggressive ▯ Stress and Risk of Injury Stress can either be good or bad o Negative stress is linked to a higher risk for injury Produces fear and anxiety o Eustress = positive stress (beneficial) Helps adapt and motivate o Distress = negative stressors Without stress there would be little constructive or positive activity Psychosomatic phenomenon: hormonal responses result in increased cortisol release Two types of stress: o Acute- threat is immediate and response instantaneous o Chronic- leads to an increase in blood corticoids from adrenal cortex Emotional Response to Stress o Sports serve as stressors o The first person to notice an athlete is stressed is the coach or a friend/teammate Changes in personality and performance may be indicator of need for change in training program o Injury prevention is psychological and psychosocial o ATC must be able to identify when they can no longer help the athlete to a certain point ▯ Overtraining Result of individual putting too much physical demand on their body than they are able to cope with Can eventually lead to staleness which eventually leads to burnout o Staleness: numerous reasons lead to thins- training too long, not resting, etc. Attributed to emotional problems stemming from daily worries and fears Leads to not being able to cope with other things in life This feeling of anxiety leads to individual feeling inadequate This leads to physiological changes in the body: symptoms that make you feel sick but you’re not actually sick Minimal positive reinforcement can lead to staleness Increased risk of staleness for acute and overuse injuries and infections Recognition and early intervention is key o Burnout: syndrome related to physical and emotional exhaustion leading to negative concept of everything in life Stems from overwork Can impact health ▯ The Catastrophic Injury Defined as a permanent functional disability; changes the life of athlete and life of loved ones forever Intervention should remind athlete of all the things they can still do ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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