Chapter 4 The Emergence of Thought and Language
Chapter 4 The Emergence of Thought and Language Psych 3206
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3206 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Maag in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
02/12/2016 Developmental Psychology Chapter 4 The Emergence of Thought and Language Practice Babies You might have an actual baby to practice back in the 60 years ago. They would go to a local orphanage and lease a baby for a year for a home economics department of the university. Donnie Domecon. (Domestic Economics) Before the days of informed consent. Nowadays we don’t have a lab where you can interact with real babies. 3 Main Theories of cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory The information processing approach Vygotsky’s Theory How child interact with others. Piaget’s theory A stage theory Schemes (concepts): psychological structure that formulate experience/skill. Assimilation: These are the new experiences and skills that go into a schema or idea. Accommodation: The schema or idea is altered based on a new experience/ skill. Equilibration: outofdate ways of thinking are now replaced by a more advanced or progressive schema. These changes typically occur at ages 2,7, and 11 Examples: A Ball These babies have to assimilate ideas of what a ball is and then when the concept of a beach ball or a basketball, new examples are added to what you already know A Chair Have to learn to put the word to what’s familiar Have to accommodate what they know a chair to be. Accommodate scheme is changing. We don’t like to be told we’re wrong and the more we accommodate the more we feel not at ease. Accommodating so much may feel disequilibriumed; think one way about the world you have to keep revising. Examples: High School vs. College 02/12/2016 Accommodation Have to accommodate scheme of what it means to be a student. Assimilation sit in class, take notes, taking exams Equilibrium Much more comfortable now Stage 1: Sensorimeter Thinking From birth to the age of 2 Acting on the world Adapting to and exploring the environment Physical action as a form of learning Object Permanence Ex. Dropping cereal off of the table. Babies have to learn objects don’t just disappear when they are out of site. When covering a toy it’s not quite understood that there is still a toy there, meaning no sense of object permanence. Our symbols Our inner monkey shaped our body and brain What makes our brain different from other primates? When an experiment was done with a 3 month old monkey to see if they understood object permanence, the scientist first shows the fruit on the toy then hides for the monkey to just in turn find it. This shows understanding of object permanence. But when a baby was tested with toy keys and toy was then hidden just like the fruit he did not understand it was right in front of him. The monkey learns more through physical mature world. A not B error After knowing to reach for an item they reach for the wrong place. Reaches for the first place (A) not the second Reward ( reinforced for reaching for the first choice) Babies will eventually grow out of this phase. Stage 2 Preoperational Theory Ages 2 through 6 Limitations on Thinking Egocentrism o The way children see the world; they assume everyone else sees it their way; doesn’t understand there are other perspective. o Mountain Experiment A little boy thought what he saw, the lady conducting the experiment saw too The older boy blatantly new that what she saw was different from what he saw. Centration o Conservation Tests 02/12/2016 When looking at two same shape glasses full of punch the younger and older child both new it was the same amount of punch but when poured into a taller glass the younger one thought that the taller glass means more punch while the older child knew it was the same amount of punch just couldn’t quite put it into words as to why it was the same amount. The younger child uses centration and the older one has a sense of conservation.
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