Poli Sci 4 Notes - Week 4
Poli Sci 4 Notes - Week 4 PoliSci 4
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elena Stacy on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PoliSci 4 at University of California Berkeley taught by Mark Bevir in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Introdoction to Political Theory in Political Science at University of California Berkeley.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Introduction to Political Theory Notes: Week 4 Readings – Liberalism Political Ideologies by Heywood Liberalism p. 24 - Focus on the individual, fulfilled lives - Ultimately came from the end of feudalism o Feudalism: Crown owned lands distributed to the people based on hierarchy, military service, vassalage, etc. - Opposed to “divine right” and “absolutism” - Heavily influenced by Enlightenment ideas - Reason,justice, tolerating others - Positive Freedom vs. Negative Freedom o Negative freedom focuses on being left alone and being able to do what one wants o Positive freedom focuses on being able to fulfill one’s life in an autonomous manner - Anti-paternalism - Choose reason over tradition and norms - Supports the presence of law and government to protect the ability to be free without infringing upon others’ freedom - Classic Liberalism o Negative freedom o Society is made up of individual beings (atomism) o Minimal government o Self-regulating society/economy - Neoliberalism o laissez-faire economy o individualism/atomism o strong belief in free market o minimal government - Modern Liberalism o Positive freedom o Government regulated economy Against laissez-faire Taxation/government expenditures Keynesian economy o Individuality & social liberalism Welfare state o Against transnational corporations - Human rights - Humanitarian intervention Political Ideologies by Festenstein & Kenny Liberalism p. 51 Reading #10: John Locke,Two Treaties of Government excerpt - Importanceof reason - Religious toleration - Private property o Argues that everyone benefits in this situation - Humans are naturally free - Right to revolutions when government violates freedoms Reading #11: Benjamin Constant,“The liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns” excerpt - Ancient times = political liberty o Ability to participate in government affairs, civic engagement o No economic freedom o Collective - Contrast to modern liberty o Free market, commerce, ability to own capital o Not as much ability to participate in civic engagement - Constant doesn’t like government involvement in individual affairs Reading #12: W. von Humboldt, On the Limits of State Actionexcerpt - Freedom doesn’t necessarily mean that one has a fulfilled & developed life - Variety is needed in conjunction with freedom o The two are closely related - Fulfilment of life through ability to act spontaneously - Government provides means for growth (minimally, still) - Values diversity Reading #13: James Mill, “Government” excerpt from Political Writings - Egoistic - Government is responsible for happiness of individuals and society o Direct contrast to Humboldt’s belief in minimal aid in opportunities to flourish - Prevent terror andhindering of others’ ability to be happy - Short election terms to prevent corruption Reading #14: Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America excerpt - Modern day: individuals have opportunity to rise, not an accident of birth - Individual opportunity to form passions and choose career path - Modern democracy stifles diversity due to popular opinions taking over o Produces similar opinions across all, due to minority not being able to be heard Reading #15: J.S Mill, On Libertyand Other Essaysexcerpt - Heavily influence by de Tocqueville, James Mill, and Humboldt - Government may onlyexercise power to prevent harm - Must protect individual from conforming - Note that these ideas only apply when society is considered “civilized” or capable of being independent o Implications of this? What is an “uncivilized” society? Reading #18: John Dewey,“Liberty and Social Control” excerpt - Does not support laissez-faire o Need to take action when society needs it - Positive liberty - Socialized economy o Negative connotation on both sides of the political spectrum - Control over “social institutions” o Aids the individual’s needs
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