Intro to Sociology Notes 2
Intro to Sociology Notes 2 Sociology 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Pamfilis on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 101 at Towson University taught by William Tsitsos in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Sociology Lecture Notes (2/4/2016) Examples: Gamergate/feminism/misogyny in video games o Trolling as a borderline criminal thing (can be paralleled to Durkheim’s ideas about crime) Ritual: a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order o How do rituals create or reinforce social solidarity? o Goffman’s theory of dramaturgy is a theory of interaction rituals (scripts, aligning actions) Symbolic interactionalism (SI): micro-perspective, concerned with small group interactions and attaching meaning to different symbols o Seeks to understand society by examining day to day interactions of people with a focus on language, gestures, and symbols, and the meanings they assign to situations (create social meanings; interpretations) o SI often focuses on the social forces which influence the formation of identity and self (environment influences social aspects) Examples: reality, identity, self Assumptions of SI: o Reality is a “social construction” (ex: identity) o Cooley’s “Looking-glass self” (1902): humans use verbal and non-verbal responses of others to fashion a mosaic image of who they are o Self-fulfilling prophecy: a prediction that, purely as a result of having been made, causes the expected result to occur, thus confirming its own “accuracy” Ex: if you tell a child that it is stupid consistently, they will begin to believe it and, as a result, perform as a lower rate in academia Structural vs. Individualistic expectations: o Philip Zimbardo: The Psychology of Evil (psychology professor at Stanford looked into the mentality of guards/prisoners) Stanford Prison Experiment (1971) o Adu Ghraid Prison Scandal (2003-4) in Iraq, the prison was used for prisoners of war (showed American guards performing sadistic punishments on prisoners, etc.) Structural: power of the situation is stronger than the power of the individual (Zimbardo’s belief) Individual: “sadistic, bad people” (Public belief) Impression formation (IF): o Process by which we define others based upon observable cues (ex: age, race, sex, appearance, verbal and non-verbal expressions) o This is not the same as stereotyping (although stereotypes may influence the impressions which we form of others) Stereotyping everyone in a group is essentially the same IF: combinations of observable cues and messages formed of the individual Impression Management (IM): o People form impressions of others and manage impressions of themselves at the same time o Social group membership (ex: gender, age, social class) suggests culturally defined expectations of behavior and values o Observable characteristics (ex: appearance and clothing) verbal and non-verbal communication are all taken into account Ex: cosmetic surgery Erving Goffman (1959): THE Presentation of Self in Everyday Life o IM is the process by which people attempt to present a favorable public image o Primary goal: increase the likelihood of obtaining favorable outcomes (ex: get a job, get a date, get a promotion) o There is still a “core self” that influences these identity portrayals o Dramaturgy: the study of social life as a theatre “performing” when in social interactions via IM Terms have parallels in theatre Examples: role: image being projected (or attempted) audience: people who observe our behavior script: communication with others props: objects used to present image frontstage: where appropriate appearance is maintained backstage: where preparation for performance is made and where IM can be relaxed and the “core self” can emerge Impression Mismanagement (IMM): o Spoiled identities; when we fail at IM, we follow different tactics to re-establish order and regain our identities o Aligning action: to restore order and repair damaged identity Ex: “I don’t want to sound____, but ___” or “no offense _____” (2/9/2016) Socialization: process through which one learns how to act accordingly to the rules and expectations of a particular culture Structure vs. Agency: (similar to structural vs. individualistic) o Social structures and forces influence and constrain our behaviors, as well as our life outcomes o “agency”: our ability to influence our own life outcomes, much like the philosophical concept of “free will” Status: named social position that people can occupy (ex: mother, student…) o Can be ascribed or achieved Ascribed status: acquired at birth or taken on involuntarily Achieved status: social position entered based on personal accomplishments Role: set of rights, obligations, behaviors, duties, etc. associated with a particular status o Role conflict: the frustration that people feel when the role demands of one status that they are expected to fill clash with the demands of another status This forces us to prioritize and makes our different statuses particularly salient (relevant to a particular situation) Agents of Socialization: o Family: primary source of personal socialization o Social class: similar experiences of power, prestige, wealth, etc. Lead to similar ways of perceiving life and social structure o Peers: peers can strongly influence beliefs and behaviors o Media: transmit messages about the type of people we “should” be; subtle and not so subtle messages o Education: transmission of knowledge, Also latent functions which are forms of socialization Socialization of Gender: o Sex: biological maleness or femaleness o Gender: psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness or femaleness (masculinity/femininity= role) o Ex: Elizabeth Lambert (how does this demonstrate the concept of role conflict?) Athlete (seen in common society as inherently “male”) vs. woman (socially constructed roles associated with femininity) o Environmental factors Adult behavior often differs with children labeled as “boys” or “girls” Greater encouragement of motor activity with boys More interpersonal stimulation and vocalization and nurturing with girls Gender specific terms of endearment (sweetie, cutie, princess vs. slugger, tough guy…etc.) Gender specific toys (domestic vs. mechanical) Encourage creativity, nurturance, and physical attractiveness in girls Encourage education, science, war, invention, exploration, competition, and aggression in boys (2/11/2016) “Born Rich” looks at issues that rich kids face in defining themselves in a world where they have essentially reached the “end goal” of normal people, just by being born (into a rich family) Meritocracy: “people want to believe that everyone earns what they have” said in the first scene/beginning of the film o Explaining that he did nothing to earn his money, other than being born/inheriting it o Everything has been going for him since birth (education, networking, money) o “trouble ahead” grandfather had “rich people problems” “voodoo of inherited wealth” (not talked about: money is taboo) Need the approval of family/peers (group socialization) Interviewing Luke (gaming industry heir) Reluctant to talk about money because nobody does **concept of frontstage Dramaturgy/frontstage: Luke has a certain way of acting around his family, in a way that he does not act under normal circumstances Social norms: o Recreational drug use= a social norm between rich kids o Don’t have to do anything because they already have money But “working hard makes me feel good” People that don’t do anything aren’t happy o Only date rich people o Buying designer clothes “romantic partner needs to understand the importance of this” o Weird to bring a poor person home to meet the family don’t want to introduce them to their parents o Share stuff in common/relatable experiences (small dating pool) o “pre-nup is a must”- ALWAYS o Impolite to talk about money o Afraid they’ll get disowned (have to act in an acceptable manner) o Feel the need to prove themselves (not to be defined solely by their money) o Getting sued for the first time= “rite of passage” **social class as an agent of socialization Only associate with the same type of people no African American people allowed in the country club (when talking to Christina Lloyd, the daughter of the golf star)
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