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Bio 181 Week of Notes

by: Ernie

Bio 181 Week of Notes BIO 181

GPA 3.98
General Biology 1
Chakravadhanula, Farrokh, Konikoff

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About this Document

These notes cover the cell cycle, and the processes of DNA replication to Translation. This explains how DNA will be converted into essential proteins for organisms
General Biology 1
Chakravadhanula, Farrokh, Konikoff
Class Notes
Biology 181, Biology, Cell Cycle, transcription, translation
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Ernie on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 181 at Arizona State University taught by Chakravadhanula, Farrokh, Konikoff in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biochemistry at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Bio 181 Lecture Notes 282016 Translation Clicker Questions 1C 2A 3E tRNA Transfer RNA that has amino acid attached to it has anticodon that matches up to codon on mRNA mRNAhas a codon that matches to the anticodon on the tRNA these two RNA s match up to create amino acids with Ribosomes The ribosomes are made up of a smaller and larger sub units Prokaryotes Size 705 Eukaryotes Size 805 The ribosomes bind to mRNA Mitochondria have 705 sized ribosomes since mitochondria also have their own ribosomes separate from rest of the cell this supports the endosymbiosis theory tRNA Needs to be charged before it can bind to ribosomes so the amino acid needs to link up to the tRNA once the tRNA has an amino acid it brings it to the Ribosomes and matches to corresponding mRNA These amino acids join together eventually and make a protein with joined amino acids Like Polymerase it must work 539 to 339 0 Translation begins at a quotstart codonquot usually AUG methionine 3 Binding Sites in Ribosomes ADPDE A Accepts new tRNA if it matches the mRNA connected to ribosome P Peptide bonds for growing protein E Exit for old tRNA that has already contributed amino acid This continues until a stop codon is reached Ribosomes are not speci c when it comes to creating proteins 1 If codon is AAA 2 The anticodon is UUU 3 Therefore the amino acid will be the amino acid that codes for AAA 0 The code that results always comes from the mRNA not the tRNA even though that is what the amino acid is attached to so the codon of mRNA matches the amino acid sequence 0 There are 3 stop different codons that will end translation and AUG Methionine is the typical quotStart Codonquot 20 amino acids code for different 64 Codons this causes multiple different codons to result in the same amino acid DNA 5 TAGTGCGAC 3 RNA SGUCGCACUA 3 Bio Notes Mutations and Regulation 21216 Clicker Question Mutations Cont Wild Type DNA Normal not mutated Sickle Cell Disease Caused by a missense mutation in hemoglobin gene Frameshift Mutation Comes from deletion or insertion of one or a few bases Deletes one letter and then all the other letters pair up with the next one this causes all amino acids to change Most like Nonsense Mutation as far as function goes Insertion in middle of the gene is more harmful than at the end DNA most likely to be passed on to subsequent generations Most Mutations have Neutral effect on organism opposed to being deleterious Gene Regulation Cells need to respond to changes in environments Can regulate at any DNA points Constitutive Enzyme Need all the time RNA amp DNA Polymerase DNA Helicase Inducible Enzyme Only made when needed Lactase to Break down lactose Regulators Proteins that binds neat the promoter of a gene and affectsprevents the transcription of the gene If the gene is needed then regulator changes shape temporarily Bio Notes Lecture 2102016 Mutations Clicker Questions PP PPM nugtwgtw Translations Cont Protein Functions 1 Transport in cell membrane 2 Catalyzing Reactions 3 Cellular Respiration 4 Determine Cell Structure The sequence of amino acids determine the shape in the protein which in turn determines the function of the protein S Phase Where DNA replication occurs Transcription and Translation occurs during all parts of cell cycle MDGlDSDGZDM Typically there is one mutation in every 10 Billion Nucleotides Mutations are constantly accumulating Types of Mutations Point MutationSubstitution Most common Only looking at substitutions that occurs in genes Types of Point Mutations 1 Silent Mutation Amino Acid is not changed there is only a change in one codon but this change still codes for the same amino acid to add to the polypeptide during Translation This allows the protein to function normally as if there was no mutation at all 2 Nonsense Mutation When a codon does not code for the appropriate amino acid it actually codes for a quotSTOP CODONquot which cuts the sequence short this usually causes the protein to not function 0 A nonsense mutation is most harmful if in the middle of the sequence than at the end because it cuts off more potential amino acids that would code for fully functioning proteins 0 It is possible that with a nonsense mutation the protein will function normally not at all or function but not as well 0 Most likely effect of a nonsense mutation on cellular phenotype is that the phenotype will be different than normal 3 Missense Mutation When one amino acid is changed to a different amino acid most likely that the protein will function but it will not function as well as a normal functioning protein Bio Notes 252016 Translation Clicker Questions PPNPPPPPF ngtnwnmwww RNA polymerase must bind to promoter to start transition Genes are transcribed Genes being turned on expressed Transcription has multiple initiation sites on each chromosome RNA is more likely to have mutations when newly synthesized because it does not edit DNA does not need to be replicated before it can be transcribed Transcription creates mRNA 1 RNA Processing Noncoding regions are removed introns Bio Notes 232016 Clicker Questions 1 B 2 A 3 E 4 A 5 B 6 D Cell Cycle Polymerase needs 3 prime OH to start Primer Small nucleic acid that allows replication to begin PCR uses DNA as primer Cell Cycle checkpoints happen at various points end of 61 and 62 and during Metaphase in M phase to make sure that cell replication is going right Most time spent in G phases End of 61 checks for errors in DNA this prevents mutations from passing on to daughter cells 61 also checks that cells are large enough to replicate DNA RB Protein blocks progression at end of 61 if Phosphate is added to RB groups it allows it to pass RB suppresses tumors stops division of cells uncontrollany Tumors Benign are safe Malignant not safe because they spread to other body parts Cancer cells divide forever unlike normal cells defective cell cycle control BRCA1 amp 2 help repair damaged DNA if they are mutated more likely to cause cancer Cancer usually has 69 mutations Many genes mutated in cancer are regulated in cell cycle Tumor Suppressors Brakes to stop cell cycle Positive Regulators Accelerators over active or excessive growth Treating cancer can be done by block the growth factor receptor Transcription DNA to RNA RNA to Protein is translation Central Dogma DNA to RNA to Proteinpolypeptide Translation makes nucleic acids into amino acid codons When you don t go from DNA to RNA to protein you are an exception of the central Dogma Reverse Transcription is making DNA from RNA HIV Flu and genes only making RNA are exceptions of Central Dogma When you deviate from central dogma they make mistakes a lot which is why u is different every year One Gene codes for one protein USUALLY Very small fraction of Genome codes for actual protein most is quotJunk DNAquot DNA vs RNA RNA has U not T RNA is single stranded RNA has extra Oxygen RNA polymerase needs to start at the beginning of a gene This is why it binds to a promoter to start transcription Promoter Where transcription initiates Elongating starts in 53 so it is read off of 35 prime RNA Polymerase does not proof read in transcription unlike DNA polymerase Terminator Site The end of the gene that stops transcription


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