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chapter 6

by: Adrianna Elbon

chapter 6 BIOL 1114, 001

Adrianna Elbon
GPA 3.48

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Intro to zoology
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrianna Elbon on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Zoology w/ Dr.Lee CHAPTER 6  CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE:  The concentration gradient can store potential energy.  Cell membranes can form compartments-  Endomembrane system is made up of the following: nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondrial membranes, & cell membrane.  INTERMEMBRANE SPACE is where potential energy is stored  Another part of the cell membrane structure is the transmembrane proteins.  Transmembrane proteins are very selective. The following are transmembrane proteins: carrier proteins, channel proteins, and gated proteins (they all basically move things in and out of the cell)  When something enters the cell without a carrier, it is called simple diffusion (a type of passive transport).  Things normally want to enter the cell because they are moving down their concentration gradient, which also means they diffuse from high to low concentrations.  Passive transports include: simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis (water)  Facilitated diffusion is when a protein transports something into the cell  Active transport: active transport uses energy (passive does not, passive is powered by the concentration gradients) active requires energy because it moves against the concentration gradient (up the gradient)  There are three different types of solutions: isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic. Isotonic means that the solution has the same number of solutes as the other solution. Hypertonic means that the solution has a lower concentration than the other, and hypotonic means that the solution has a higher concentration than the other.  Active transport includes the following:  Sodium-potassium pump (which requires ATP)  An active mechanism changes shape in order to drive things through/into the cell.  Bulk transport (transports of large things into the cell) is also known as vesicular transport. CELLULAR REPSPIRATION: The three parts of cellular respiration are: - Glycolysis (breaks down glucose) - Krebs Cycle - Electron Transport Chain - Hint: most of the energy transformation occurs in redox reactions - A tip for remembering that oxidation means lost and that reduction means gained (electrons) is OIL RIG. - The electron transport chain: inner membrane, outer membrane, matrix, cristae, DNA, ribosome, and the inter-membrane space holds potential energy. - NADH and FADH come from the Krebs Cycle and glycolysis. 2 - ATP synthase complex is powered by hydrogen ions - O2(oxygen) is the final electron acceptor during cellular respiration - A basic break down would be: 1. Breathe in oxygen/eat food, 2. Break down polymers into monomers, 3. Feed sugar& O to cells2 and 4. Split glucose into to pyruvate molecules. - GLYCOLYSIS: (does not require oxygen so it is anaerobic) 1. Split into two pyruvate 2. Strip electrons of their energy 3. Make ATP in the process 4. (Now, in the presence of oxygen this happens) passes on 2 pyruvate and two NADH to the mitochondria -KREBS CYCLE: 1. Strips more energy 2. NADH goes on to the electron transport chain (NADH and FADH2 energize transmembrane proteins for active transport) 3. H increases inter-membrane space 4. Makes ATP (also does not require oxygen) 5. Krebs Cycle passes on 8 NADH and 2 FADH2 to the electron transport chain 6. The ATP synthase harnesses concentration gradient energy to make ATP Electron Transport Chain: - The money maker $$$$ - The last step Overall discussion of cellular respiration: - Transmembrane proteins are on the inner-membrane - Enzymes do the conversions (proteins) - NAD NADH - NAD is limited in the absence of oxygen - NADH gets converted back to NAD creating lactic acid byproducts. - In the presence of oxygen….. Transition step  2 pyruvate Acetly CoAOutput NADH, FADH2, ATP, breathe out CO2. - NADH, FADH2 power - Energized proteins pump H against the concentration gradient - Chemiosmotic phosphorylation: harnessing the power of the chemical gradient to produce ATP - Conversion rates for our purposes are 1 NADH3 ATP, 1 FADH2 2 ATP - 36= theoretical ATP yield of cellular respiration. - Proteins and fats can enter the cycle at many steps - Proteins enter using beta-oxidation **** Cellular respiration really cannot be explained as well as it should be by these notes, but the best way to learn would be to find google images of the process that has explanation besides each image of the steps.


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