New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 102 Notes, Week 5

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Notes, Week 5 BIOL102

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Biology > BIOL102 > Biology 102 Notes Week 5
C of C
GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the notes from prokaryotic reproduction to stramenophile protists, the week of 2/9-2/11.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
Biology, biology 102
25 ?




Popular in Concepts/Apps in Biology II

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.

Similar to BIOL102 at C of C


Reviews for Biology 102 Notes, Week 5


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/14/16
o Reproduction § Prokaryotic fission/asexual (predominant kind of reproduction) § § Takes anywhere from 20 minutes to 1-3 hours to divide § Where does genetic variation come from? • Mutation (the quicker they divide, the more mutations accumulate) • Horizontal gene transfer o Conjugation (bacterial sex) o Adaptations that make them successful § Reproduction § Endospores • Dormant resistant cells in a tough cell wall • Can survive heat, cold, time, just waiting for water so it can become viable again • Gram positive o Botulism (from bad canning, muscles go into a contracted state) o Anthrax - Bacterial Diversity o Cyanobacteria § Chloroplast ancestors § Most are aquatic • Spirulina § Some live in soils • Anabaena o Aids in nitrogen fixation o Proteobacteria § Ancestors to mitochondria § Ex: e. coli, rhizobium (nitrogen fixer) § Some are pathogens, but them majority of them are gram negative (has the extra membrane) • Cholera • Salmonella • Ulcers • Bubonic plague o Gram positives § Endospores § Probiotics • Lactobacillus § Disease: strep, gonorrhea, staph, TB § Normal flora: • Bacteria and fungi that live on the skin and the body o Spirochetes § Lyme disease • Pretty uncommon, more common in the northeast US § Syphilis o Chlamydias § STD (both chlamydia and syphilis are increasing in prevalence since the advent of apps like tinder and an increase in casual sex) • 1 million cases per year in the US § Parasite: must have host to survive • Can’t make own ATP - The Archaeans o Separated based on rRNA sequences o Live in extreme environments (most are known as extremophiles) § Extreme thermophiles (love heat) • Deep sea vents, hot springs § Extreme halophiles (love salt) • Salt ponds, the dead sea (5-10x saltier than the ocean) § Methanogens • Methane producers • 2 billion tons per year o greenhouse gases (a lot of which come from cow gas) o The Viruses § Neither living nor dead § Infectious particles with a protein coat • DNA or RNA § Ex: flu, HIV, common cold, herpes • This is why we immunize o Viral multiplication § Not reproduction because they’re not alive § Lytic pathway • Takes over host machinery to replicate then pops cell • 5 steps: • 1) Attachment • 2) Penetration • 3) Replication • 4) Assembly • 5) Release • § Lysogenic pathway • Latent stage • Lytic pathway activated by stress o Infectious particles § Viroids • Circular RNA • Plant pathogens, not super concerning § Prions • Misfolded proteins • Mad cow disease o Disease § Endemic – low level persistence (TB, west Nile) § Epidemic – spreads in only a part of the population, usually short term • Ex: the flu § Pandemic – world epidemic • AIDS, SARS, H1N1 o Evolution with pathogens § Coevolved barriers to pathogen world dominance • Immune system • If the host (us) dies, the pathogen will die § Problems • Antibiotic resistance is increasing, there are very few antivirals • Novel strains: bird flu, ebola - Ecological importance of bacteria o Chemical recycling (bacteria helps break things down) o Symbiotic relationships § Enteric, nitrogen fixation o Commercial production o Biotechnology (instead of taking insulin from pigs, we can make it in a lab) o Bioremediation (biodegrading oil spills) - Protists o Protist evolution § First eukaryotes to evolve from prokaryotes § Primary and secondary endosymbiosis o “Catch all” group § It’s a bit obsolete now, it exists to give us a general understanding § If we were more specific, there would be 8-10 kingdoms o Represents original eukaryotic ancestors § Diverse group o Characteristics of protists § No one characteristic defines the group, but they are all aquatic (everything else has an exception to the rule) § Most are unicellular § Most have motility (flagella/cilia) § Reproduction: asexual via fission or mitosis and sexual via meiosis and fertilization • Most cases are haploid, with the zygote only being in the diploid stage § Nutrition: heterotrophic (protozoans), photosynthetic (algae), mixotrophic (euglena) o Flagellated protozoans § Represents the oldest lineage of protists § They’re single celled heterotrophs § Pellicle (ropes of proteins) under plasma membrane • Gives support to the plasma membrane § 1) Euglenoids • Free-living (don’t utilize a host or cause disease) in fresh water • Most colorless heterotrophs • Appears in blue blooms § Pathogenic Protozoans • 2) Diplomonads o Remnant mitochondria (require a host), two nuclei (shows the many differences in protozoans) o Giardia: cysts in drinking water, campers nightmare • 3) parabasalids o Remnant mitochondria (require a host) o Causes STDS • 4) Trypanosomes o One large mitochondrion o One flagellum forms an undulating membrane o Causes African sleeping sickness, requires a vector (the Tse Tse fly) o Rhizarians: shelled amoebas § Mineralized shells (some have a silica shell, some have a calcium carbonate shell) § Heterotrophs (don’t photosynthesize) § Use pseudopods in feeding (engulf their food source – bacteria or algae) o Alveolates § Membrane bound sacs underneath plasma membrane § 1) Ciliates • Means they have cilia • Most are free living heterotrophs • Paramecium (water is always moving across their plasma membrane, so this function keeps them from absorbing too much water) § 2) Dinoflagellates • 2 flagella/spins • Cellulose plates (unique to dinoflagellates, within the alveoli of the cell wall) • Many are predators or parasites • Some symbionts with coral (must stay at the right temperature and when they get too warm, they leave and the coral dies without a food source) • Some photosynthetic dinoflagellates can form harmful algal blooms: a toxic red tide, common along the Gulf Coast o Beaches are closed down, you can’t breathe there because of the toxins they emit, you can’t eat seafood because the animals will filter feed and ingest these toxins • Some can bioluminesce (no health issues with this species, it just looks really cool) § Parasitic Alveolates • 3) Apicomplexans o Piercing microtubules at apex o Gametes – only flagellated stage o Plasmodium – malaria (requires a vector, a mosquito) o Needs a tropical environment to be successful § Sickle Cell Anemia has developed in certain parts of Africa to combat malaria o Stramenophiles § At least one cell stage has two distinct flagella § Their name comes from their hairy flagella § Heterotrophs and autotrophs (different stages of life) § 1) Water molds • Or downy mildews • Fungal-like anatomy (threads that intertwine) • Plant pathogens (caused the late potato blight in Ireland) • They keep an eye out for this in vineyards so it doesn’t get in our wine § 2) Diatoms • Phytoplankton, silica shells (krill) • Each species is defined by the shell it’s in • Asexually reproduces smaller and smaller until it’s so small that it sexually reproduces • Found anywhere (water, soil, etc) • Diatomaceous earth – DE § 3) Brown algae (multicellular) • Live in cool waters • Large seaforests • They’re plant-like, moving towards land plants (not ancestors, but moving towards the same idea) • Cellulose cell walls


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.