RUSS 280 notes (2/16/16 - 2/18/16)
RUSS 280 notes (2/16/16 - 2/18/16) Russ 280
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Pushkin Born 1799 into old noble family Mother (granddaughter of an Abyssinian prince --> favorite of Peter the Great) Age 12 --> goes to academy (prestigious families only) located in a palace Rebel, exile, husband Graduate school Has liberal aristocrat friends --> want to change Russian ways of ruling so that people become literate Pushkin --> exiled to southern reaches of empire His friends rebel (Decembrist Rebellion) and are exiled/killed 1826 petitions czar to be brought back Czar becomes Pushkin's personal censor Eugene Onegin: a novel in verse, 1825-1832 Cynical, bored Becomes model of Russian romantic hero Confesses love of Tatyana, kills her sister's fiancé, Lensky, in duel, then falls in love, unsuccessfully, with Tatyana, who is married "Queen of Spades" (written in 1833, published in 1834) Herman the German does not gamble Hears of Tomsky's grandmother's history with winning cards Woos her ward Liza, frightens countess to death She gets her revenge by ruining him, he goes mad Pushkin claimed that all over St. Petersburg, rich young men were gambling three, seven, ace Mikhail Lermontov, 1814-1841 As teenager, recited Pushkin's poetry Poem after Pushkin's death led to his own exile o Czar Nicholas I didn't want another "Pushkin" Sent two times to Caucasus for active military service In several duels, last one killed him at age 27 o Wrote A Hero of Our Time (1840) 1841, he goes off to a spa and is rude and upsets everyone. He gets into a duel and is killed Poetry --> melancholy, pessimistic, lonely "A Hero of Our Time" Novel written 1837-1840 5 stories Main character: Pechorin (anti-social, individualistic) Travel accounts, romantic adventures Pechorin is self-portrait of Lermontov himself Pechorin often seen as heir to Pushkin's Evengi Onegin, the superfluous man Set down in Caucasus o => "Taman": one chapter of "A Hero of Our Time" Romanticism in Russia Reaches height in 1820s with appearance of Byron and Byronism Byron a British writer associated with swashbuckling brigands performing heroic fleets Russians focus on escapism, and rebellion, social protest and individual isolation, exotic milieus, and noble savages, death, madness, and murder At same time, specifically Russian: adapted to Russian milieu Pechorin and Onegin seen as experiencing a unique and Russian sort of boredom, that of the superfluous man Russian Music Lecture Folk music before 1830s Mostly oral traditions No composed art or court music Not by Russian composers Courts heard imported music – Italian and French opera Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) Goes to Germany to train for writing opera Wanted to compose Russian opera 1836 – Life for the Tsar (folk song) 1843 – Rulsan and Ludmilla (fairy tale) (unusual harmonies, rhythms, meters to represent the mystical (Chernamor)) Mighty Five (1850s-1970s) (Moguchaya Kuchka) Balakirev, Cui, Mussorgsky, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov Articulated Russian nationalism in concert hall carry on the tradition Boris Godunov by Mussorgsky (1874) Prince Igor by Borodin (1869-1887) o On stage Russian history Snow Maiden by Rimsky-Korsakov (1880) The Golden Cockerol by Rimsky-Korsakov (1904) Sadko by Rimsky-Korsakov (1896) o Russian fairy tales Instrumental Music Balakirev – overture on three Russian themes (1859), Rus (1860), Taman (1976) Mussorgsky – Night on Bald Mountian (1867) Pictures at an Exhibition (1874, pno; 1922, orchestra Ravel) Rimsky-Korsakov – Russian Eastern Overture (1887), Caprice Espagñole (1887), and Scheherezade (1888) --> tales of Arabian Nights ("call to prayer") Mighty Five Started to fall apart around 1970s No formal training o All had jobs o Gathered at Balakirev's apartment o Studied Western music Russian musical society Aton Rubenstuin (1829-1894) Russian pianist Established series of conservatories with help of Tsarina (1866 Moscow Conservatory => Tchaikovsky Peter I. Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) Studies law Stops and pursues music Studies at St. Petersburg Conservatory 1866 – teaches at new conservatory Hint of Russian folk tune in his fourth symphony fourth movement (In the Field a Birch tree was standing) Writes operas => Nationalism (inspired/written/poetry) by Pushkin Eugene Onegin (1878) o Story by Pushkin; contemporary Russian society o Personal tragedy for Tchaikovsky marries former student Antonia, Milyukova has breakdown and flees (he's gay) Queen of Spades (1890) o Story by Pushkin Nationalism – Ballet o Swan Lake (1876) o Sleeping Beauty (1888) o The Nutcracker (1897) --> "Arabian Coffee" - Russian orient He had a patron, Natalia (Nadezhda) von Meck o She was a secret patron for 14 years o Couple years before his death, she stopped sending money because she didn't like what he was composing Russian Nationalism Continues The Firebird (1910) Petrushka (1911) The Rite of Spring (1913) o Stravinsky --> last to put all of the Nationalism on the screen