Abnormal Psychology Week 5 Notes
Abnormal Psychology Week 5 Notes Psyc 2500
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by lucy allen on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer M Joy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Disorders Focusing on Somatic Symptoms -somatic disorders are characterized by physical complaints without medical cause -experiencing a variety of physical issues and cannot find medical reason -includes the four following disorders Factitious Disorder -when physicians cannot find a medical cause for a patient's symptoms -known popularly as Munchausen syndrome -person is intentionally faking illness -could be making themselves ill in some way -common among people who (a) received extensive medical treatment as children (b) carry a grudge against the medical profession or (c) have worked as a nurse, lab technician or medical aid -this is because these people have a larger knowledge of medical symptoms they could fake and what they look like, etc. -Munchausen syndrome by proxy -making other people sick to get something you want -most common case is the parent manipulating (telling child they are sick, or actually causing illness) a child for something they want -behaviorally it is reinforced that perceived illness can bring good things to a person's life -only disorder in which medical issues are faked, all others are real but there is no medical reason that can be identified Conversion Disorder -people with this disorder display physical symptoms that affect voluntary motor or sensory functioning, but the symptoms are inconsistent with known medical diseases -can be temporary paralysis, blindness, etc. -happens quickly after a stressor, generally for a short period of time -hard to distinguish from genuine medical problems -it is possible that we just don't know what is wrong with someone's body -be careful, don't just jump to this conclusion! Somatic Symptom Disorder -excessively distressed, concerned and anxious about bodily symptoms that they are experiencing -typically longer than conversion disorder episodes -pain symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, sexual symptoms, and neurological symptoms -no medical explanation identifiable for continued feeling in patient -person might have experienced something to cause pain initially -ex: patient was in a car accident, broke their leg, but it is now healed and the patient feels pain still What causes conversion and somatic symptom disorders? -psychodynamic theorists propose conversion of underlying emotional conflicts into physical -primary gain: keep things (psychological stressors) out of our conscious awareness -secondary gain: we can avoid unpleasant situations, get sympathy and support -behavioral theorists: bring rewards to sufferers from continued pain -cognitive theorists: provide a means for people to express difficult emotions -form of communication -not making it up, really feel the pain -we as a society are not very supportive of emotional needs over a long period of time -our society does a better job of supporting extended physical pain How are Conversion and Somatic Symptom Disorders Treated? -insight: talk based therapy from psychoanalytic perspective -exposure: client thinks about traumatic event(s) that triggered the physical symptoms -eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) -relax the person so they can talk about a trauma that previously occurred in a more comfortable/open state -drug therapy -especially antidepressant medication, sometimes antianxiety medication -hypnosis -still used but not as much anymore -behavioral: reward structures -reinforce more communication about other things rather than pain -also not used as much -confrontation: directly bringing up the source of the stressor -not used very much anymore Illness Anxiety Disorder -previously known as Hypochondriasis -chronic anxiety about their health and are concerned they are developing a serious medical illness, despite absence of somatic symptoms -there may be some somatic symptoms present, and then the person jumps to an extreme conclusion (exotic disease, etc.) -these people often worry in series, from one issue to the next -theorists explain this disorder much as they explain various anxiety disorders: -behaviorists: classical conditioning or modeling -person notices they are treated better when they are perceived ill -cognitive theorists: oversensitivity to bodily cues -simply coughing from just choking on a drink can lead these people to believe they are very ill -receive the kinds of treatments applied to Obsessive Compulsive Disorders -cognitive-behavioral approaches -exposure and response prevention -antidepressants (especially serotonin based) -reinterpretation of thoughts The Physical Stress Disorders: Psychophysiological Disorders -through our stresses we can also have issues that occur that actually cause physical damage to the body -in addition to affecting psychological functioning, stress can also have great impact on physical functioning -psychophysiological disorders bring about actual physical damage -ulcers, asthma, insomnia, chronic headaches, high blood pressure, and coronary heart disease -list of physical symptoms first noticed to be related to psychological stress -we can see the medical cause but it stems from a psychological issue or stressor Theories -biological factors: looks at deficits in the autonomic nervous system -defects in the autonomic nervous system leads to an imbalance (fight/flight) -and potentially physical symptoms -weak body systems -if your body system is not working properly, you are more prone to the physical symptoms -psychological factors -needs, attitudes, emotions, coping styles -want versus need, perceived needs -how we address the things we believe we need, attitude about the world -these things can interact with our body and cause overly emotional reactions to scenarios -sociocultural factors -living in poverty or impoverished situations -ethnic or cultural minority groups are more prone to stressors causing physical damage in the body -some groups go through more stressful situations (discrimination, prejudices) -available support due to communities belief system is variable, and influences outcomes New Psychophysiological Disorders -what are some of the most stressful life events? -general adult population -death of spouse -divorce -marital separation -jail term -death of a close family member -undergraduate population -death (family member or friend) -tests -finals week -applying to graduate school -victim of a crime Psychoneuroimmunology -psychological stress can cause immune deficit -researchers have increasingly looked to the body's immune system as the key to the relationship between stress and infection -this are of study is called psychoneuroimmunology -norepinephrine is jolted -will stress result in the slowing of the immune system? -increased norepinephrine may slow down immune system -changes in behavior/lifestyle -changes in behaviors when under stress -drinking alcohol -smoking -not drinking water -not sleeping well -lack of exercise, etc. -personality -social support -lots of research support suggesting resilience due to strong social networks in our lives -actual social networks, NOT FACEBOOK Psychological Treatments For Physical Disorders -the field of treatment that combines psychological and physical interventions to treat or prevent medical problems is known as behavioral medicine -relaxation training -coloring books -guided meditations -biofeedback -anything that can be measured can be changed, so being more aware of our bodily cues allows u to control it better -meditation -hypnosis -cognitive interventions -stress inoculation training: patients are taught to rid themselves of negative self-statements and to preplace these with coping self- statements -emotion expression and support groups -seeing others going through similar issues is helpful -mindfulness/yoga nidra: dreamless sleep state while remaining fully awake -one hour of yoga nidra is about 3 hours of sleep -good for: -fibromyalgia -chronic fatigue syndrome -depression -post-traumatic stress disorder -anxiety -insomnia -restlessness -chronic pain -*just some of the things it is helpful for*
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