phonological disorders week 3
phonological disorders week 3 CDS 392
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDS 392 at University at Buffalo taught by Joshua Benn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Week 3 Theories of sound acquisition (SLIDE 1) (Title slide) speech sound acquisition -everything up until today will be on quiz: will not have the chart for distinguishing features -introduction to child speech sound acquisition section -need to know what’s typical of children when acquiring speech and use it as standard to compare to any client you’re observing -have to know whether to refer them to professional, what’s typical of 1 yr old vs. 7 yr old to know what assessment tools to use -deciding whether client has completed remediation and is ready for dismissal (SLIDE 2) (SLIDE 3) behaviorism: became popular in 1950’s -it is really hard to understand what is in people’s mind, so lets forget about that and look about how people behave and then we’ll get insight into people’s minds -there was no way to test these theories with empirical data, it was speculation -**reactions to stimuli -reward for certain behavior or taking rewards away/ providing punishments for other behaviors (SLIDE 4) look at correct pronunciation based on whether people around them approve or not -you have to socialize in order to acquire a language -but every speech sound acquired is not necessarily due to the positive feedback they received when making sound -unlikely that care takers are providing that much feedback all the time while child is speaking -with all utterances there are so many factors that child may not know whether the feedback was for one aspect or another -behaviorist model is not really viewed as a viable one (SLIDE 5) treated speech sound or articulation disorders as motor problems so they thought it was an issue of rectifying motor issue, today there are motor based and linguistic based practices, you have to distinguish if it is more motor or linguistic(understanding rules of the language and sounds) (SLIDE 6) (SLIDE 7) (chart) based on observation of many children acquiring speech, tells you which period each phoneme is acquired -50% of children is beginning of bar, 90% is at end of bar -“p” bars extends from 1 ½(50%) years to 3 years old (90%) -product of behaviorists (SLIDE 8) underlying phoneme is realized as allophone -has to do with acquisition bc: underlying representation is how it is typically pronounced by adult, assuming child has adult representation in mind, only when produced is when pronouncing allophone (SLIDE 9) (generative phonology again) notice patterns of phonological rules -very useful w respect to child lang acquisition, can make generalizations using same features and same framework -assumes children have adult like representation in mind---problematic bc we don’t have basis to say this is true another framework in which child has adult like representation -but there are natural processes that change the way speakers pronounce word: happen in languages across world and very typical in children -people say that these processes are innate: everyone is susceptible to them (SLIDE 11) (SLIDE 12) (non linear) -causes us to consider other things than what is on the left and right of it (ex: every time it is in the coda it gets vocalized) -stress is about supersegmentals (SLIDE 13) (SLIDE 14) (SLIDE 15) (SLIDE 16) (sonority sequencing principle) in a single syllable we want a single peak -less sonorant sounds toward edges (SLIDE 17) (cluster reduction) (SLIDE 18) (psycholinguistics) attempts to come in and actually see what’s happening in mind while speaker is speaking (SLIDE 19) black box: our mind -psycholinguistics wants to explain what’s going on in black box (SLIDE 20) child will have two lexicons -unlike generative phonology, in this model-input might not be adult speech, it could incorporate problems with perception of speech Review questions for quiz 1) affricates and fricatives have what in common? - (d) +consonantal – sonorant (not all fricatives are coronal, but some are coronal, neither are sonorants, last option describes glides bc they are consonants) 2) which features do the following vowels have in common? -(f) –high –low 3) alveolar fricatives differ from interdental fricatives by -distributed 4) s from t - continuant (bc plosives are –continuant and fricatives are +continuant) 5) which consonant is most likely to get deleted? -/s/ in onset we want short rise in sonority, we want least sonorant one to stay (p is lower in sonority so it gives a higher rise than s would bc s is slightly higher) 6) deleted from lisp -/p/ because in coda position you want a gradual decline in sonority and s is more sonorant so it stays 7)( c) natural phonology (getting rid of native instincts and then you can produce adult like speech) 8) (b) behaviorist 9) (c ) (rhyme has nucleus and coda and onset is alone)