Abnormal Psychology Week 6 Day 1 Notes
Abnormal Psychology Week 6 Day 1 Notes Psyc 2500
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by lucy allen on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer M Joy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Substance Abuse and Addictive Disorders -drug: any substance other than food that affects our bodies or minds -doesn't have to be medicine or illegal -caffeine is probably the most widely used -alcohol is the most widely abused -substance use disorders -pattern of maladaptive behaviors and reactions brought about by repeated substance use -physically dependent on substance -tolerance: getting used to a drug after using it and requiring more and more each time it is used due to increased tolerance -withdrawal: after stopping or cutting back on drugs, you can have physical symptoms such as feeling sick or irritable -affects 9% of all teens and adults in the US -categories of drugs -depressants -slow your central nervous system activity -by slowing release of neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin release) -brain and spinal cord -alcohol: -bing drinking: 5 or more drinks -7% of people binge drink 5 times a month -men outnumber women 2:1 as heavy and binge drinkers -clinical picture of somebody with alcohol -different for every person -"To alcohol! The cause of -and solution to- all of life's problems" -vicious cycle -video: your brain on alcohol -effects neurotransmitter release -excitatory: glutamate -inhibitory: gaba -organizes and differentiates results in your brain -your brain on alcohol increases gaba release, so inhibition is increased, and cognition and thinking decrease overall due to lack of action potentials -think very little, but with great clarity -sedative-hypnotic drugs: generally used to relieve anxiety and produce feeling of relaxation and drowsiness -barbiturates (amytal, Nembutal, seconal) -attach to gaba receptors, preventing reuptake of gaba, similar to SSRI mechanisms -popular in the past, prone to being risky for overdose -difference between effective dose and overdose is small -benzodiazepines -same purpose as barbiturates (Xanax, Ativan, valium) -increase gaba activity -less dangerous in terms of overdose potential -used much more frequently for medical purposes -opioids -opium, heroin, morphine, codeine, methadone, 'narcotics' -bind receptors in brain that usually receive endorphins -tolerance --> withdrawal -overdose -ignorance of tolerance, take large dose after not using for a while -risk of withdrawal and overdose are severe with opioids, especially if someone is unaware of the idea of tolerance -2% of people who are addicted to heroin die each year due to ignorance of tolerance and the resulting overdose -stimulants -increase CNS activity, increasing release of neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine -cocaine: increases dopamine at key receptor sites, increasing speed and action of CNS -taken to feel more alert -intoxication: mania, paranoia, impaired judgment -danger of overdose due to physically addictive properties -method of ingestion makes it hard to measure dose, and purities/strengths vary -other types will act differently (free- base, crack cocaine) may affect the body faster -feeling of invincibility (increase in dopamine) makes the person more inclined to do risky behaviors -amphetamines: another stimulant, still illegal, work in a similar way -increase CNS activity and therefore dopamine levels, norepinephrine and serotonin too -causes increased energy and alertness -prone to tolerance and withdrawal -large enough dose can cause psychosis -caffeine: works in the same way as many other simulants -increases CNS activity, releases dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine -most widely used stimulant -80% of the world consumes caffeine daily -withdrawal symptoms can include headaches, depression, anxiety and fatigue -consumption forms of caffeine have changed -energy drinks, pills, etc. -stimulant use disorder: stimulant comes to dominate the individual's life -tolerance and withdrawal reactions my occur -0.5% of people display stimulant use disorder from cocaine and 0.25% display it from amphetamines -other drugs: hallucinogens -mescaline -psilocybin -LSD -binds serotonin receptors, increases serotonin release and prevents reuptake in synapses -hence emotional changes, patterns of thought, etc. due to involvement of serotonin -MDMA -tolerance and withdrawal are not as severe with these drugs -other drugs: cannabis -any form of marijuana product -can have a lot of different effects depending on type, strain, and ingestion method -can have hallucinogenic effects even! -cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) -diverse effects on the brain -some users develop tolerance an withdrawal, experience flu-like symptoms, restlessness and irritability -withdrawal symptoms are not as severe as alcohol -1.7% of people in US displayed marijuana abuse or dependence in the past year -substances in combination -cross-tolerance: if you're taking one drug, you can increase tolerance of another drug -alcohol and benzodiazepines both metabolized by the liver, so alcohol consumption can create a benzo tolerance -can permit overdose due to -synergistic effects: potentiation, certain drugs taken in combination will have a multiplicative effect -antagonistic effect: drugs compete with each other, and person does not feel the effects of one while under the influence of another -mixing of stimulants and depressants can cause this to happen -cocaine impedes processing of alcohol in the liver -leads to overdose in alcohol, person does not feel the metabolic effects of the alcohol consumption until it is too late -graph of harm of different drugs to the users in society and other people in society -alcohol is the most harmful -legal drug, easier accessibility -alcohol is a social drug, we are more exposed to people intoxicated with alcohol -causes of substance use disorders -no single explanation has gained broad support -current theory: combination of factors -stressful socioeconomic conditions: substance use is valued or accepted -lack of parental nurturing -parents who use substances might cause child to model that behavior -no parental support structure can cause substance abuse to fill the void -operant conditioning, expectancy that substances will be regarding -less about the actual effects of the drugs, but more about the expectation of how the drug will feel -got mice addicted with cocaine, paired a stimulus with cocaine exposure -observing their brain shows an increase in dopamine when the stimulus is presented -after ingestion of cocaine the dopamine levels will drop way below average -when you're addicted, the drug itself is not what is pleasurable; it is the expectation of how it will make you feel -genetic predisposition, biochemical factors -substance disorder treatment -cross-theoretical approach: psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive- behavioral, biological and sociocultural therapies -behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy -aversion therapy: pairing an unpleasant stimulus with the drug and the expectations of the drug you experience -based on classical conditioning techniques -cognitive-behavioral treatments help clients identify and change patterns and cognitions -how you approach substance, use your thoughts and perceptions of when it is appropriate to use and how much is appropriate -for alcohol: keep track of number of drinks -look at coping strategies, find alternatives -drinking to decrease anxiety in social settings: replace drinking with practice of conversation topics, jokes, etc. -plan ahead of time when faced with drinking scenarios -going to a work party: drink less than when you are going out with friends -biological therapy -used to help people withdraw from substances, abstain from them or maintain level of use without increase -certain drugs can act antagonistically and prevent feeling the effects of the drug the person is addicted to -limited success on their own, helpful in combination -methadone: similar effects as heroin, less significant, allows people that are addicted to satisfy cravings and prevent withdrawals without overdosing -administered by a specific person for regulation -sociocultural therapy -take many forms -self-help programs -culture- and gender-sensitive programs -look at the idea that peoples use, reasons and motivation for using drugs may be different based on culture or gender -men are twice as likely to be heavy drinkers, could be for certain reasons -native Americans are much more likely to have alcohol abuse issues than other races -community prevention programs: preventing drug- seeking behaviors to begin with -sending ex-cons to a school and having them share their story -community working together to target drug dealers -commercials, etc. -main idea is that prevention is easier than taking care of the produced addict -sometimes have great success, more often they are only moderately helpful -treatments are typically used in combination -reward system -activated when using an addictive drug -results in increased dopamine release -pathway most often associated is the mesolimbic dopamine pathway -starts in ventral tegmental area (VTA) -and goes to the nucleus accumbens -mesocortical dopamine pathway -also originates in the VTA but travels to the frontal cortex -dopamine does not cause pleasure -increases reward seeking -gambling disorder -2.3% of adults and 3-8% of teens and college students have GD -not defined by amount of time or money spent gambling -defined by maladaptive patterns of behavior or thought -spending extra time and money to gamble for fun is healthy -unhealthy is spending money a person needs for food or rent on gambling, or goes gambling during important times (when the person is supposed to be at work or with kids) -similar treatments as for substance use disorder -internet use disorder: uncontrollable need to be online -should it be included in the DSM?
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