Abnormal Psychology Week 6 Day 2 Notes
Abnormal Psychology Week 6 Day 2 Notes Psyc 2500
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by lucy allen on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer M Joy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Eating Disorders -two main diagnoses -anorexia nervosa -DSM criteria -refusal to maintain more than 85% of normal body weight -intense fears of becoming overweight -distorted view of weight and shape -clinical testing: person draws themselves or uses an image manipulation tool to select a form of themselves they approve of -Amenorrhea: loss of menstrual cycle -90-95% of cases are females, 5-10% are males -higher risk for males that are gay or bisexual -onset is generally between 14-18 years old -many patients do recover over time, but 2-6% become seriously ill and die -due to medical complications or suicide -may follow a stressful event -separation of parents -move away from home -experience of personal failure -motivation is fear -distorted thinking -low opinion of their body shape -overestimate their actual proportions -hold maladaptive attitudes and misperceptions -what other psychological problems do people with anorexia nervosa often display? -anxiety -depression -insomnia/other sleep disturbances -substance abuse -obsessive compulsive disorder or symptoms -caused by starvation -amenorrhea -low body temperature -low blood pressure -body swelling -reduced bone density -slow heart rate -metabolic and electrolyte imbalances -dry skin, brittle nails -poor circulation -in significant cases body overcompensates and starts growing a type of fur to be warmer -bulimia nervosa -repeated bouts of uncontrolled overeating during a limited period of time (binge) -many cases could mean even 10,000 calories in one sitting (a weeks worth!) -inappropriate compensatory behaviors -forced vomiting (often with misuse of laxatives, etc.) -misusing laxatives, diuretics or enemas (often with forced vomiting) -fasting -exercising excessively -onset between 15 and 21 years -many of bulimic people are of average weight, making it hard to pick up on -typically people-pleasers, enjoy their social life -maintain bulimic cycle in secret -binges are usually preceded by feelings of great tension -binge often followed by feelings of extreme self-blame, guilt, depression and fears of weight gain and being discovered -compensatory behaviors may temporarily relieve the negative feelings attached to binge eating -over time, a cycle develops in which purging > bingeing > purging -people with bulimia tend to be more of people-pleasers -more concerned about being attractive to others -more invested in having intimate relationships, tend to be more sexually experienced and active -more likely to have histories of mood swings, low frustration tolerance and poor coping -major medical differences: -anorexia criteria: many experience Amenorrhea, but bulimic people do not -bulimia can cause acid reflux due to the acidic process eating away at the throat -digestive tract can be found to be effected as well, due to misuse of laxatives -similarities: -begin after a period of dieting -fear of becoming obese -trying to become thin -preoccupation with food, weight, appearance -feelings of anxiety, depression, obsessiveness, perfectionism -heighted risk of suicide attempts -substance abuse -distorted body perception -disturbed attitudes toward eating -mindfulness is getting more and more research support here -binge eating disorder -individuals with this disorder engage in repeated eating binges during which they feel no control -two-thirds of people with this disorder become overweight or obese -not driven towards being thin like anorexia or bulimia -do not start from dieting either -no gender difference found -causes of eating disorders -most theorists and researchers use a multidimensional risk perspective to explain eating disorders -several key factors -more factors = greater risk -psychological perspectives -Hilde Bruch (psychodynamic): eating disorders are the result of disturbed mother-child interactions -cognitive: improper labeling of internal sensations and needs -depression, mood disorders- set the stage -biological -serotonin deficits (SSRIs effective for bulimic people) -dysfunction of the hypothalamus (weight thermostat) -sociocultural -societal pressure -standards of attractiveness -subcultures -family environment -modeling -enmeshment: families overly involved in everything that everyone else is doing -children in these families do not have a role in day-to-day decisions -wrestlers, long distance runners, body-builders are all likely males that have eating disorders -multicultural -1995 study -eating behaviors and attitudes of young African American women were more positive than those of young white American women -current research: suggests body image concerns, dysfunctional eating patterns and eating disorders are on the rise among young African American women and other minority groups -eating disorders among Hispanic American female adolescents are about equal to those of white American women -males account of 5% to 10% of all cases of eating disorders -how are eating disorders treated -eating disorder treatments have two main goals -correct dangerous eating patterns -address broader psychological and situational factors that have led to, and are maintaining, the eating problem -treatments for anorexia nervosa -immediate aims of treatment: -regain lost weight -recover from malnourishment -eat normally again -combination of therapy and education: individual, group and family approaches -interventions: behavioral and cognitive -focus on behaviors that led to the eating disorder as well as those that go along with the eating process (both behavior and cognition) -treatments for bulimia nervosa -immediate aims -eliminate binge-purge patterns -establish good eating habits -eliminate the underlying cause of bulimic patterns -cognitive-behavioral therapy -exposure and response prevention (same as OCD treatment) -treatment for 'trigger foods' -antidepressant medications -treatments for binge eating disorder -cognitive-behavioral therapy -exposure-response prevention (same as OCD treatment) -can still involve trigger foods -antidepressant medications -people with binge eating disorder who are overweight require additional medical intervention -there is a lot of research on mindfulness based approaches in the treatment of eating disorders -treatment centers are being formed to practice mindfulness in treatment of eating disorders -Timberline Knolls Treatment Center -examples of mindless eating -eating until you are too full and then feeling guilty -emotional eating- eating when you are bored, stressed or anxious rather than hungry -grazing on food without really tasting it -mindlessly munching on snacks while zoned out in front of the TV -eating a meal at the same time each day whether you are hungry or not -skipping meals, not paying attention to your hunger signals -mindful eating -eating with intention and attention
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