Hobsbawm Summary GLST 1000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keyanna Alexander on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GLST 1000 at North Carolina Central University taught by Dr. Joshua Nadel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Global Experience in History at North Carolina Central University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Keyanna Alexander GSLT 100002 Dr. Nadel February 15, 2016 Hobsbawm Summary Chapter 6: Building Nations Starting in 1848 countries claimed independence and nationality. These included Germans, Italians, Hungarians, Poles, Rumanians, Czechs, Croats, Danes and others. With the claiming of nationhood there arrived the “Eastern Question”: how to redraw the map of European Turkey (amongst other countries). A similar issue occurred in Habsburg Empire when different nationalities demands included everything from cultural autonomy to secession. The belief of NationBuilding was a logical, necessary, and desirable transformation of “nations” into sovereign nationstates, with territory defined by the settlement of members of a “nation,” which is defined by a past history, common culture, ethnic compositions, and language. NationBuilding doesn’t make sense because these criteria are not met in nonnationstates, but they still claim territories with differing groups (nations). Historic nationhood focused on the importance of the institutions and culture of the ruling classes verses Ideological nationhood that believes no people should be exploited and ruled by another. When claiming nationhood, nations put emphasis on folk heritage to argue separation, because they may have the same language as their ruling classes. Small nation, an unhistorical or semihistorical nation, prosed a dilemma to the traditional theology of nationstates. Traditionally, nationstates must be progressive, suggesting that it is of substantial size. Unification was placed in nations wanting independence to give them that size of progression. For example Yugoslav is a state to unite Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Bosnians, Macedonians and others, but they do not believe they come from the heritage that makes a nation of people. Giuseppe Mazzini: believed that Europe should consist of 27 nationstates, where all smaller nations would be integrated, with or without autonomy. Believed that identify small nations as nationstates would undermine the progression of larger nations. Unification of countries lead to the classification of local languages to merely dialect. This would give argument to making the elitists’ language to be the official language of the nationstate. For example Italy’s official language is Italian, but many people speak Savoyards (a language/dialect closer to French). National European choices with small nations include, denying their existence, reduce them to reginal autonomy, or accepting them. Majority of the time the greater nationstate choose to deny their claims to independence. This then lead to the issue of creating nationalism. Nation state vs. Nationalism: After Italy had been established from Alps to Sicily, only 2.5% spoke Italian on a daily basis. They were Italian geographically, but not culturally. To enforce nationalism, educational and propaganda were used to unify the local elitists under the umbrella of the nationstate, and then trickled down to the more traditional or poor sections. Mass nationalism also correlated with economic and political development. Czech Nationalism: bourgeoisie founds a Czech bank, National theatre, Sokol gymnastic clubs, etc. AustroHungarian Compromise: series of vast open air mass rallies, termed “meetings”. More direct than the middleclass nationalism of Italy or Germany. Irish Republican Brotherhood (Fenians): Irish Republican Army, lineal descendant of the secret revolutionary fraternities from before 1848, making it the longest living organization of its kind. Support came entirely from the popular masses. Their criterion for nationalism was Catholicism. The movement only worked with the triumph of liberalism. The Fenians generated the force to win independence from England, but left the leading of the newly independent nation to the middle class moderates, rich farmers and tradesmen. Education was used in developing nationalism through propaganda, teach the official language, and unify the national heritage. Minorities demanded their own schools in order to not have to force a different culture on their children to be literate. Many of the Jewish people were bilingual Yiddish – native language and whatever language of their neighbors. Their nation did not receive the same advantages as others because they did not have an official language or territory. The paradox of nationalism is that once it is established it automatically creates a counternationalism where citizens must choose to assimilate or be inferior. Liberalism believed nationalism was malleable. The US assumed immigrates would leave their nationalism behind to assimilate into Americans. Immigrates instead became more consciously proud of their nationality. Chapter Seven: The Forces of Democracy Focused on the fact that the masses opinions counted, not necessarily what they were. The masses were considered “numerous, ignorant, and dangerous.” The line between the middle class and inferiors were becoming blurred through social mobility and educational progress. The masses were also capable of rebelling again if they felt that their interests were not being considered. The Second Empire of Louis Napoleon was an experiment on political management of the French masses. Napoleon was the first European elected official. He worked to “enforce their interest in their own name.” France was the first European country to have universal suffrage. Aristocrats relied on their historical property to achieve political influence while petty bourgeois were able to control to votes of the working or lower class. Liberalism was popular because of its support of Manchesterism, the only economy policy that made sense for development. Called “The Left.” “The Right” resisted the belief of the forces of history. They wished to slow down progress in the fear that developing too fast would lead to another revolution. Choosing sides most likely tied to their economic trade. The Catholic Church was outwardly Conservative, as seen in Pope Pius IX’s “Syllabus of Errors.” Karl Marx founded the International Workingmen Association, which worked for working classes rights and was considered a socialist organization. Lassalle’s General German Workers Association was radicaldemocratic and was the only Marxist mass labor movement. Their rival group was the Social Democratic Party. Both groups would eventually merge to create Social Democratic Party of Germany. The Marxist movements would go on to fail in every nation that tried to start a mass labor movement.
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