World History II Week 5 Notes
World History II Week 5 Notes HIST 1020
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Worlds of Work in an Industrial Age Legacies of the French Revolution 1. Weakened political influence of aristocracy and clergy o End of privilege based on birth: careers based on merit o Limited monarchy (constitutional) 2. France transformed into modern state o secular, rational (law), infrastructure 3. Practical application of ideas of Enlightenment o Individual subject becomes citizen (rights & duties) 4. Revolutionary Fervor Exported Ex: Americas (Haiti) 5. French Revolution + Industrial Revolution -> Creation of European working class What's Revolutionary about the Industrial Revolution? When: late 18th and early 19th century (Europe) What: application of power driven machinery to manufacturing Why a revolution?: monumental changes on all these fronts Where people live (urbanization) Work (how to relate to what they do) Material conditions of life (standard of living) Family (engaged in wage labor outside of home, even children --> shift in identity) Transportation (method/rate at which people/goods travel) Physical Landscape (deforestation, land mining, smoke factories) Role of Government (is it their responsibility to help workforce) Time (different work shifts, time is money) Why England? Natural Resources o Timber, coal deposits, and iron ore o Fuel furnace of industrial Access to raw materials (India) o Cotton (inexpensive) Political Stability o Geographically isolated from turmoil with French Revolution Population Growth Agricultural Revolution o Products related to land holidays massive population boom o Lot of demands (problem) o Develop machine to support population Innovation/Mechanization o Early machines o Cotton and textile production # o Lynch pin of industrialization is textile Biological Consequences of 1492: The "Columbian Exchange" corn and potatoes Utility to help people palette taste How to feed working class inexpensively Huge population growth in London 1700-1850 1700: 500,000 people 1800: 959,000 people 1850: 2,363,000 people The Agricultural Revolution o 1st step toward industrial revolution 1. New World Crops i. Population boom 2. Shift in Landholding Patterns i. Land held in individual plots/strips Small and amount sufficient for family and maybe a little extra they could trade Eventually insufficient ii. Enclosure Movement Enclosure acts Enclose a # of small plots for one large one; make one person the owner Large farming operations try to make every acre as productive as possible Need surplus Urbanization Pushed many people into cities = downside 3. New Agricultural Methods i. Agriculture as Science Jethro Tull (1674-1741) Seed Drill o Higher levels of germination o Prior to this seeds were distributed by seed throwing (rely on randomness/wind/animals) Horse Drawn Hoe o Weed control o Speed up process using animal labor Yarn Production and Cottage Industry Textile production Before Industrial Revolution (Cottage Industry or Putting out Method) o Merchant purchases raw cotton o Deliver to group of women to clean and spin to yarn o Come back in week to get yarn and leave more cotton o Take to another house to weave yarn together o This was a slow process and produced small output Innovations in Textile Production Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves, 1778) o Produce more spools of yarn Waterframe (Richard Arkwright, 1771) o No need for human labor (mistakes, costly, tiredness) o Water can run constantly to power Positives o Increased output tenfold o Cost of producing yarn dropped 9/10 Negatives o Number of workers reduced 4/5 o Cost of labor dropped by 1/2 James Watt - Steam Engine Machines can work day and night Increased work time Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776) First book to explain economy of nation as a system New set of enlightenment philosophers o Applying rational thought to material/economic questions o Same conclusion = answers are absolute freedom Keys to Economic Growth o Laissez-faire economics: Market's invisible hand = competition Government non-intervention Supply and demand o Division of Labor: Specialization of labor force Increase production Routineization The Division of Labor Pen making example o Each person has one specific task Benefits o More efficient o Cheaper o Higher production o Not long apprenticeship = train workers more quickly Problems o Child labor o Harsh working conditions o Low safety standard o Quality of goods o People's attitudes about what they are doing The New Industrialized Urban Landscape: Tenements Massive influx of workers No sewers o Out the door/windows o Into water (consumed/exposed to) No building checks = safety not checked No trash collection = pests (rats) = disease o Air pollution Fires for heat in rooms Grim reality for people in cities Diseases o Cholera, Tuberculosis, Smallpox, Typhoid Fever o Misinformation about how they spread Spread by smells (poisonous cloud) "The River Irwell is considerably less a river than a flood of liquid manure." Life Expectancy (1850s) o England = 40 years o Manchester = 25 years o Note: 17 in poorest neighborhoods Punch a clock Productivity measured in units produced Gas Lighting and Urban Life Can work through the night Difficult schedule o Anything that happens is scheduled o Bells ring to let works know to change o 12 hour shifts (7-7) o Set times for lunch and breakfast o Gates shut and lock once workers come in Women and Industry Excited to work outside the home o Created tension in family o New exposure to sexual freedoms/dangers 1/2 - 1/3 of male wage earned o Justification is that male is real bread winner and any other money is supplemental Children and Industry Need for supplemental income No public schools or daycares o Don’t know what to do with them o Have no one to watch them so have to take them to work Worked same hours as adults o Could be beaten as punishment Hard physically and psychologically o Rickets Knees bow out Not enough nutrition and rest Skeletal disfigurement Thousands treated for wounds and accidents o Prone to accidents o Send in child to fix one small part = get hurt o No compensation if harmed "Walking the streets of Manchester is like living in the midst of the Army just returned from a campaign" - German Tourist (1842) Mining Typically used males o Crushed by wagons o Lung Disease No access to sunlight Michael Sadler (1780-1835) Forms a commission to investigate working conditions o Specifically with children and textile factories Sadler Commission (1832) o Wants to evoke response from parliament o Interview about what life is like Child Labor Legislation First labor worker protection in history Neither abolished child labor outright o Just placed limits Factory Act (1833) o Prohibited children under age 9 Limited hours working 9-13 years old = 8 hours max 14-18 years old = 12 hours max Mine Act (1842) o Girls no longer used at all Could harm their reproductive health o Boys under the age of 10 could not work Problems o No oversight o Resistance to legislation because people really need the money o Does not solve the problem of what to do with children during the day Nation Building in an Imperial Age The World's Holiday (May-October 1851) Invite the world to see London first hand Huge event = 6 million attend First global exhibition Want to celebrate and show world advancement in Great Britain Prince Albert and Queen Victoria Unapologetic celebration of British might No reference to social and economic problems "This is Our Only Vacancy" (London, 1851) o Not a very nice place to stay considering the huge celebration "This Way to the Great Exhibition" (London, 1851) o To many people climbing on top of one another to get on the exhibition Sir Joseph Paxton (1801-1865) Submitted a design for the perfect venue Celebration of Industrialization Innovator in construction of greenhouse Monumental greenhouse o Made entirely of industrial materials Assembly of Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London 9 months Largest single sheets of glass produced to date Weight: 400 tons Space: 33 million cubic feet Area: 18 acres 500 painters to paint interior "A Temple Made of Glass" o Completely revolutionary o Centralized location in city o Single firm brought the parts o Coming to worship Industrialization/British Progress o People were charged an admission fee of $.59 per person Opening Ceremony (May 1, 1851) 1/2 million participants Encased whole trees within the building Reminding audience o Worthy of this celebration o Show their power Great Exhibition of all Nations 15,000 exhibits 100,000 objects 1/2 of entire exhibit dedicated to Great Britain o Featured product is textiles Show they can industrially produce with great quality and color The "Miracle" of Mechanization: Displaying Objects of Utility Given a catalogue with descriptions of the machines Focus on innovation and variety Early prototype of Telegraph Machine Early Mechanized Printing Press Foreign Exhibits All others countries in the other half of the exhibit together France is largest foreign contributor Countries from all around the world o What are the objects that they bring and what do they say about them France o Show off by sending artistic production Textiles, paintings, porcelain o Rich, cultural, aesthetic position o World's largest mirror = meant to show what capable of India Textiles, clothing, jewelry, gigantic elephant statue o Rich cultural tradition U.S. o Agricultural machinery, sewing machine, huge eagle Most popular = rifles/ samples of gold Machinery Room The heart of the great exhibition Machines ran the entire day Most talked about and visited section Queen Victoria's favorite o “Went to the machinery part, where we remained two hours, and which is excessively interesting and instructive…What used to be done by hand and used to take months doing is now accomplished in a few instants by the most beautiful machinery…We saw hydraulic machines, pumps, filtering machines of all kinds, machines for purifying sugar—in fact, every conceivable invention." Reassembling the Crystal Palace A place rich in history Disassembled and transported on the outskirts of south London Couldn’t have been done if it had been made with bricks Destroyed by fire in 1936 Plan to rebuild 2013 Displays and Disparities: Industrialized Nations vs. Primary Producers The haves and the have nots England and then way on the other spectrum India Shows how different they are England gets cotton from India at low cost Colonial Questions? Industrialized/Imperial Nation o How acquire colonies? Via what means? o How make them socially & politically stable so that can extract raw goods? o How justify this relationship of dependence? On what grounds? Primary Producers/Colony o What are the relative costs & benefits of colonial status? o What is gained in that relationship? o What is lost in that relationship? Macgregor Laird Quote He had a lot to say about colonies and imperial relationships These are his answers to the colonial questions Great Britain has superior biological/ moral (bible)/ physical and mechanical traits o Uniquely positioned to be an industrial Titan o Duty to bring the light of civilization to dark places Dark places = not like Great Britain Not industrial, white or Christian Extremely racist British Empire (Ca. 1914) Controlled ~1/4 of the Earth's surface Jewel in British crown = India o Important imperial structure o Geographic position = Indian Ocean trade routes o Link to textile production = lost cost cotton prices London Headquarters of East India Company (EIC), ca. 1800 EIC chartered in 1600 Initially funded by wealthy British Investors Located in capital city Lucrative relationship with British crown o Operate monopoly on trade in India in exchange for taxes on imports o Taxes tea = 10% of their annual revenue Eventually take control of bigger and bigger pieces of India 1818 controlled territory in India with more people than in Western Europe Lines between EIC as company and state start to blur o Have a flag Sepoy Rebellion Protect acquisitions from Dutch and France Even further protect o Own funded army 200,000 men called sepoys o 170 units o Used Indians as troops Cheaper, less opposition, cultural problems o Problematic = tension within units Discontentment o Multiethnic (Muslims and Hindus) o Leadership positions weren't Indian = British Second class status o 1857 they released new rifle cartridges into units Tear open with teeth but greased in animal fat to keep waterproof o Never becomes a revolution o Crown hears word = troubling Worried about taxes Vein of money could be severed British Raj (1858-1947) Queen Victoria settles the rebellion Takes ownership and becomes the Empress of India (1877) Laid foundation for most important piece in British Empire
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