History Week 6 Notes
History Week 6 Notes HIST 1020
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
The Project of Empire: The British Raj Tools of Empire: Railroads Queen Victoria needs to find where to spend money for India to be as lucrative as possible Invest in railroads Contracts for supplies are with British companies/supplies o Use Indian (local) labor = cheaper India’s Railway System Ca. 1900 = 4,775 miles 5 largest railway o Interior to coast (rapid extraction of resources) Pace of life / commerce increased Mixing of o 188 million passengers a year o Take a while to adopt as transportation Tools of Empire: Cinchona Bark and Quinine Security is key to empire building Sepoy not as stable o Bring more (90,000) British troops o Problem tropical disease (Malaria) o Lose 50% of what they send in Combat disease (Peru) o Extract from cinchona bark Quinine is treatment for Malaria Help with fever not cure the disease Bleeding were the treatment before this British troops took daily dose of quinine Gin and Tonic: The Drink of Empire More British families going to India o Want civilian to take the quinine too o Need to make it taste better Doesn’t dissolve in water so use alcohol and lime Helps cut the bitterness of the taste Schwepps = 20 mg / 6 fl oz (contains quinine) Tools of Empire: Viceroy Lord George Curzon and Mary Leiter Curzon (r. 1898-1905) Government o Approach to Imperial Rule o Indirect rule or co-rule Rule by consent of or in collaboration with local rulers Viceroy Indian Civil Service Babus o Viceroy key British official, greatest amount of power o Indian Civil Service More people than in viceroy Diplomatic core, educated, elite positions Had to take an exam (open in theory) Only administer in England Major source of discontentment Upper level administrators and Judicial Positions Only the English citizens o Babus (Indian Administrators) Greatest in number Lowest level administrators, western dress, most held by Indians (local), essential advisor the ICS Used to help preserve the façade of co-rule Mary Curzon o Did a lot of entertaining, from the US not England Durbar (Delhi, 1903) Held elaborate celebrations o Beautiful elephants, sepoys standing, parade, and members of Indian royalty o All in this together, all want what is best for India o Viceroy gave presents to high up Indians and families Jewelry, coats of arms, titles Lord Curzon Feels he is the schoolmaster (superior) and that the people are less than school children Charles Darwin (1909-1882) The origin of the species (1859) o Galapagos Island finches Grounded in the science of the day Theory of survival of the fittest o Ill adapted species die out or shorter fertile lifespan, leave the stronger to survive and reproduce When applied to people = social Darwinism o People to the left of the spectrum are lesser o Scientific racism The White Man’s Burden Controversial poem Bring people on the right hand of spectrum to the left hand o Need improving/civilizing o Superior type have this burden to bring that civilization to those people and if not judge Social Darwinism becomes justification for empire Indian National Congress (1885) Group met to discuss discontentment of British rule o Some aspects Limited agenda 72 delegates; most from educated middle class, Babus Key issues o Admission into Indian Civil Service Process o Exam only in Britain, making it impossible to access Sing short petition o Not asking for end of British empire o Resolution #4 most important Equal representation Wanted exam offered in England and India simultaneously Same exam/ want opportunity to try Result 1887 = success Viceroy Lytton passed reform that made the changes requested As a result 57 individuals from India passed the exam within the 1 year Go on to play important roles in politics, Indian National Congress One became president in 1924 Gandhi Mohandas Gandhi Analyze relationship between Indian and Great Britain Father of Independence Relatively privileged background Educated in England (law degree) Mobilizing Indian people for independence o Build broad based on revolution o Effect dramatic change Non-cooperation Movement: o Non-violent resistance Instead use fasting, mass marches, mass civil disobedience o Economic Self-Determination Salt production ad cotton Why would we allow Great Britain to run monopolies on our goods Make out own textiles o National Unity (Hindus and Muslims) Won’t live to see this part happen Internal enemy = keep fractured Assassinated by radical Hindu because they feel he was giving away too much Hindu power
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