Research Methods & Statistics 1
Research Methods & Statistics 1 Psychology 211
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 211 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Zachary Pilot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Statistics in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Psy notes 1 Monday, January 25, 201611:01 AM What is Psychology? • Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes ○ The same methods for… Biology Chemistry Physics □ It can be applied to the study of Behavior Thought Emotions Physiological processes • Wilhelm Wundt: created the first psychology lab in 1879 ○ Wundt > Titchener > Boring > Tulving > Habib >US What goals do we have? • Describing Behavior ○ Focus is describing patterns of behavior thought, emotion • Predicting behavior ○ Focus is on developing equations to predict behavior • Explaining behavior ○ Focus is on developing theoretical explanations for patterns of behavior Two research methods • Basic Research ○ Conducted to understand psychological processes without regard for whether or not the knowledge is immediately applicable The primary goal if the basic research is to increase our knowledge • Applied Research ○ Conducted to find solutions for problems rather than to enhance genera; knowledge about psychological processes Find solution for certain problem rather than to enhance general knowledge Common Sense v. Research • The study of the mind and behavior is challenging because we cannot be objective bystanders ○ Ex. The brain is the most important organ you have… According to the brain Scientific Approach • Systemic Empiricism ○ Systematic observation to draw conclusion • Public Verification ○ Findings must be replicated • Solvable Problems ○ Must be solvable with current knowledge and technology Two objectives • Detect ○ Discover and document new phenomena, patterns and relationships • Explain ○ Develop and evaluate theories that explain the phenomena How do we explain phenomena? • Theory • Theory ○ answer how and why Ex. How it's related and why its related • Models ○ answer how Research Hypotheses • What is a hypothesis? ○ "Post-hoc" explanations are easier ○ "A priori" more convincing • Falsification ○ Theories must be falsifiable Defining Variables • Conceptual ○ Definition much like a definition that one would find in a dictionary More broad • Operational ○ Definition specifies precisely how a concept is measured(anything specifically to that person or experiment) More hands on Proof, Disproof, and Progress • Scientific progress depends on … ○ Accumulated evidence Research Strategies • Descriptive research ○ describes behavior No manipulation No random assignment □ Ex. Distance the soccer ball travel crossed the field • Correlational ○ examines relationships between variables No manipulation Positive: □ Going the same direction Negative: □ Going different directions • Quasi-Experimental ○ Examines naturally occurring events No control of variables ○ No random assignment ○ Pre/post It's natural □ Ex. Hurricane • Experimental ○ allows us to study causes of behavior ○ Manipulate a variable controlled ○ Systematically put participants in different groups ○ Control extraneous (irrelevant) variables Studying Non-Human Animals • Controlled conditions • Can be studied for extended periods of time • Test drugs to see if safe for humans • Sacrifice is need to understand research • Sacrifice is need to understand research
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