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by: Monique Nadkarni
Monique Nadkarni

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State and local government
Iliyan Rumenov Iliev
Class Notes
25 ?




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"What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore..."
Dr. August Heller

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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monique Nadkarni on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GOVT 2306 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Iliyan Rumenov Iliev in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see State and local government in History at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Stephanie Nguyen NSC 3361: QUESTIONS FOR (LECTURE 1&2) INTRO+ANAT PPT Spring 2013 CONCEPT QUESTION ANSWER INTRODUCTION  OLD PHRENOLOGY was touching the back of a skull and thinking that could tell what a kind of personality a person had. It was not credible. 1. What is the difference between OLD  NEW PHRENOLOGY is similar, but scientists assign separate PHRENOLOGY and NEW PHRENOLOGY? functions to cortical areas. This is very specific, and as you’ll see throughout the semester, a lot of areas work together or seem to overlap for an observable characteristic or action. 2. There is a fourteen year old Vietnamese  This girl has a genetic problem that makes the cell body of the girl who had a seizure, can’t move her right MITOCHONDRIA stop making ANTI-COAGULATES (blood arm, and can’t see to her left. She has hard thinner). Because her blood cannot be thinned out, she has of hearing, and coming back one month many clots and strokes. later, she cannot move her left arm. What problem does she have?  The neuron doctrine was proposed by SANTIAGO RAMON Y 3. What is the NEURON DOCTRINE and CAJAL. It said two statements: o Brain is composed of independent cells WHO was it proposed by? o Signal transmitted from cell to cell across SYNAPSES  Essentially, SPACE EXISTS TEXTBOOK  You find DENDRITES 4. At the beginning of a neuron, what  (extensions that branch out to receive information from other NEURON structures do you find? neurons; they transmit information to the cell body)  Dendrites CONVERGE to make one signal 5. Do these structures converge or diverge  An analogy- the provide “votes and opinions” to make a to make one signal? decision 6. Once information is in the soma, how  Information travels down the AXONS  (Tail-like extensions from the soma that carry info to the other does it get to the end of the neuron? area) A. What rule do you associate with axon  The thicker the axon, the faster the conduction rate size and conduction rate?  They’re huge! Some cross great lengths from your brain all the 7. How big are axons? How many axons do way down to your feet, but don’t worry- you have myelin you have? sheath surrounding it for support and to make the action potential signal conduct faster.  You have one axon per neuron. 8. At the end of a neuron, what structures  You find TERMINALS  (Swellings at the end of axon that RELEASE do you find? NEUROTRANSMITTER) 9. Do these structures converge or diverge  Terminals DIVERGE to various membranes to various membranes? 10. Dendrites or terminals- which structures  TERMINALS- they have neurotransmitters (remember? See would you find synaptic vesicles containing above) chemicals in them? 11. What is the order of zones in neurons?  Input Zone, Integration Zone, Conduction Zone, Output Zone 12. In the first zone, what happens in a  In the INPUT ZONE, neurons RECEIVE INFORMATION from neuron? the environment and other cells via the DENDRITES  This is the only place on a neuron where you can tell if you’ve stepped on a tack or not. Stephanie Nguyen NSC 3361: QUESTIONS FOR (LECTURE 1&2) INTRO+ANAT PPT Spring 2013  In the INTEGRATION ZONE, neurons make decisions. The 13. In the second zone, what happens in a AXON HILLOCK “counts votes” and fires information down to neuron? the next zone, the conduction zone. 14. In the third zone, what happens in a  In the CONDUCTION ZONE, information is sent great neuron? distances via the AXON.  In the OUTPUT ZONE, information is sent from this neuron’s 15. In the fourth zone, what happens in a TERMINALS to the next neuron in a chain through SYNAPSES  If information doesn’t transmit, often times the AXON or the neuron? AXON TERMINALS have been cut (but it could be anywhere along this pathway) 16. In the fifth zone, what happens in a  Nothing. There are four zones in a neuron. neuron? THREE KINDS OF 17. What are three kinds of neurons by  UNIPOLAR NEURONS, BIPOLAR NEURONS, and NEURONS anatomy? MULTIPOLAR NEURONS A. What is the most common type of neuron  MULTIPOLAR NEURON you find in a vertebrate? 18. What are three kinds of neurons by  SENSORY NEURONS, MOTONEURONS, and function? INTERNEURONS A. What is the most common type of neuron  INTERNEURON in the brain? 19. A neuron with a single extension that  A UNIPOLAR NEURON- it forms a receptive pole and an branches in two directions is what kind of output zone neuron?  A unipolar neuron, because it does not have to go through the 20. What is the benefit of the neuron from soma, is HARDWIRED and FAST. It is 100% reliable, perfect #19? for the SENSORY NERVOUS SYSTEM to detect if you have stepped on a tack or not. 21. A neuron with (two extensions of) one  BIPOLAR NEURON axon and one dendrite is called a…  Bipolar neurons are rare. You find them in your RETINA. It is only in your VISUAL SYSTEM. They are used to flip the world 22. Where do you find this kind of neuron? upside down. This still has a SENSORY function. Speed here is still important, but not as important or fast as the speed for unipolar neurons. 23. What kind of neuron has one axon but  MULTIPOLAR NEURON many dendrites?  Multipolar neurons are good when they need to think, which is most of the time. This makes multipolar neurons the MOST 24. What is the function of the neuron from NUMEROUS KIND of neuron. You get a lot of input from the #23? What functional neuron type is this dendrites, CALCULATE, and then give the neuron the anatomical neuron associated with? response to fire or not fire.  Multipolar neurons are generally MOTOR and INTERNEURONS 25. What does a sensory neuron do?  A SENSORY NEURON responds to environmental stimuli, such as light, odor, or touch Stephanie Nguyen NSC 3361: QUESTIONS FOR (LECTURE 1&2) INTRO+ANAT PPT Spring 2013 26. What does a motoneuron (motor  MOTONEURONS contact muscles or glands – transmitting info neuron) do? between the CNS to PNS.  INTERNEURONS receive input from and send input to other 27. What does an interneuron do? neurons; they do integration 28. What functional neuron is found most in  Interneurons the CNS?  Sensory – and remember, these tend to be unipolar outside of 29. Which functional neuron has the the brain and bipolar outside the brain and spinal cord (in the pathway: Body & Environment  CNS? retina) 30. Which functional neuron has the  Motoneurons- and remember, these tend to be multipolar! pathway: CNS  Muscle? 31. Which functional neuron has the  Interneurons – and these are multipolar and most common in pathway: motor  sensory neuron? the brain  When interneurons bridge between motor and sensory 32. What produces reflexes? neurons, reflexes are made 33. Which functional neurons are afferent?  Sensory neurons 34. Which functional neurons are efferent?  Motoneurons GLIAL CELLS 35. What is the number one function of glial  SUPPORT cells? 36. If there are 10 neurons, how many glial  There will be 100 glial cells because there are 10x AS MANY cells are there? GLIAL CELLS as neurons 37. What happens when glial cells are  Epilepsy and migraines damaged? 38. What is the number two function of glial  Increase speed of conduction (Oligodendrocytes) cells? 39. What is the most numerous glial cell in  ASTROCYTES – these store, absorb, and release chemicals… the CNS? (see below)  BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER- it is the link between capillaries and neurons, preventing movement of the brain as a 40. What is another name for the glial cell protective measure (imagine jumping up and down)  This also allows for transport of needed glucose and potassium in #39? to the neuron  (i.e. main functions are SUPPORT and COMPOSITION REGULATION)  ASTROCYTOMA- something has made your genes turn on for 41. What do you call the swelling of the more and more growth of astrocytes. The tumor squishes the most numerous glial cell in the brain? spinal cord causing paralysis (esp. in breathing) and then death. 42. What is the most common brain tumor  Astrocytoma in children? 43. What disease does Rolf have? What  ALEXANDER’S DISEASE – Astrocytes fill up with GFAP, and happens? then fail. GFAP is a protein waste product. In this genetic disorder, astrocytes can’t metabolize this, and this accumulates in the cell. This causes a spinal cord blockage and HYDROCEPHALUS, or enlarged ventricles due to excess fluid. Rolf’s head kept enlarging and Rolf continued to deteriorate Stephanie Nguyen NSC 3361: QUESTIONS FOR (LECTURE 1&2) INTRO+ANAT PPT Spring 2013 until he died three weeks later. 44. What are the glial cells that wrap axons  OLIGODENDROCYTES with myelin sheaths inside the CNS? 45. What are the glial cells that wrap axons  SCHWANN CELLS with myelin sheaths in the PNS? 46. What are the differences between these  Schwann cells can only wrap myelin around one axon at a two glial cells? time. Oligodendrocytes can cover 3-4 axons. 47. Why does it matter if a glial cell can  If you have MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS and kill one wrap one axon at a time or 3-4 axons at a oligodendrocyte, you also kill 3-4 axons at the same time. time?  MYELIN wraps around axons to increase firing speed (neuroconduction) and protect the axon; this saves energy. 48. What is the purpose of myelin?  In myelinated neurons, the action potential travels faster than in an unmyelinated neuron.  These gaps are where the action potential is regenerated and 49. What is the purpose of Nodes of occurs again- SALTATORY CONDUCTION Ranvier?  Myelin doesn’t work if there aren’t Nodes of Ranvier  Attack on MYELIN from the immune system  Myelin dissolves and can be restored, but recovery is never 50. What is multiple sclerosis? complete (neurons eventually die)  Attacks go on for decades  MICROGLIA are phagocytes- they clean up debris from dying 51. What glial cells are phagocytes? neurons and glia  They are in brain and spinal cord only 52. What happens when these phagocytic  As in AIDS ENCEPHALITIS, brain inflammation can occur glial cells malfunction? when these microglial clean up or take away too much. 53. What are the two phases and functions  EPENDYMAL CELLS have two phases:  Phase 1- GUIDING embryonic cells during development of ependymal cells?  Phase 2- LINING VENTRICLES and secreting CSF 54. If you have a tumor of ependymal cells,  You would have HYDROCEPHALUS because the ventricles what resulting physical condition would you expand have? 56. Ependymal cells are part of what  The ventricular system, actually. system?  Brain damage in AIDS patient from NEUROTOXINS glutamate 57. What is AIDS Encephalitis? and NO (nitric oxide) produced by viral-activated monocytes and MICROGLIA NEURONS ARE 58. What is the purpose of dendritic spines?  They are studs to INCREASE SURFACE AREA 59. What is the term used to describe how  NEURAL PLASTICITY- for example, in dendritic spines, the LINKED number and structure can be rapidly altered by experience TOGETHER IN A nerves, the brain, and other pathways are  This is important for learning!!! changeable with experience? CHAIN NERVES AND THE  The Central Nervous System is composed of BRAIN and 60. What is the CNS? NERVOUS SYSTEM SPINAL CORD  The Peripheral Nervous System is composed of all other nerves 61. What is the PNS? in the body other than the brain and spinal cord 62. Nerves found from your face to brain  CRANIAL NERVES are called..? A. Functionally, these nerves carry what  MOTOR and SENSORY kind of information? Stephanie Nguyen NSC 3361: QUESTIONS FOR (LECTURE 1&2) INTRO+ANAT PPT Spring 2013 63. Nerves found from body to spine, spine  SPINAL NERVES to body are called…? A. The cranial nerves, spinal nerves, dorsal  The Peripheral Nervous System (it is not the brain and spinal root, and ventral root are all part of what cord) system? 64. What root of the spinal nerve carries  DORSAL ROOT – it is AFFERENT (intro region of interest); sensory information from body to spinal SENSORY neurons are found here cord? 65. What root of the spinal nerve carries  VENTRAL ROOT- it is EFFERENT (away from region of motor information from spinal cord to interest)  ALWAYS GOING TO BE MOTOR muscles?  The autonomic ganglia connects the CNS to cells 66. What is the role of the autonomic  They are interconnected and respond as a unit- if you activate ganglia? it, the whole system “turns on the light to the whole house”  PREGANGLIONIC NERUONS  SYMPATHETIC CHAIN  67. What is the order of the Autonomic SYMPATHETIC ACTIVATION  PARASYMPATHETIC Nervous System? ACTIVATION  POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS (Probably will not need to know order…but just in case!) 68. Where do you find pre-ganglionic  From CNS to autonomic ganglia neurons? 69. What is the sympathetic chain?  70. What is sympathetic activation?  SYMPATHETIC ACTIVATION prepares your body for action. 71. If you see someone sweating, with a  This is characteristic of SYMPATHETIC ACTIVATION fast heart rate, and seems to dehydrated (decreased salivation), how would you characterize this reaction? 72. If you see someone with constricted  This is characteristic of PARASYMPATHETIC ACTIVATION pupils, decreased blood pressure, decreased heart rate, and increased salivation, how would you characterize the reaction? 73. Where do you find post-ganglionic  From autonomic ganglia to the body neurons? 74. Between CNS and autonomic ganglia,  Pre-ganglionic neurons what neurons do you find? 74. Between autonomic ganglia and body  Post-ganglionic neurons organs, what neurons do you find? Directions 75. There is a cut that separates the brain  HORIZONTAL CUT from top to bottom. What kind of cut is this? 76. You see the brain is sliced down the  SAGITTAL CUT midline, so you can see what’s on each half (see left and right portions). What cut is this? 77. You are looking at the brain from front  CORONAL CUT to back. What cut is this? 78. What cut resembles a butterfly?  CORONAL CUT 79. What term describes “near center”?  Proximal Stephanie Nguyen NSC 3361: QUESTIONS FOR (LECTURE 1&2) INTRO+ANAT PPT Spring 2013 80. What term describes “toward the  Medial middle”? 81. What term describes “toward the  Ventral belly”? 82. What term describes “toward the  Dorsal back”? 83. What term describes “toward  Distal periphery”? 84. What term describes “head end”?  Anterior 85. What term describes “tail end”?  Posterior 86. What term describes “toward the side”?  Lateral 87. What term describes “toward the  Contralateral opposite side”? 88. What term describes “toward the same  Ipsilateral side”? 89. What two terms do you use to describe  Rostral (toward your nose) and Caudal (toward the back of the ends of a horizontal plane? your head) 90. What two terms do you use to describe  Dorsal and Ventral the ends of a sagittal plane? 91. What two terms do you use to describe  Dorsal and Ventral the ends of a coronal plane? 92. “Dorsal” and “Ventral” can be used to  Sagittal and Coronal describe what two planes?  Things are AFFERENT if they carry impulses into a region of 93. What is afferent? interest. 94. What system is usually afferent?  SENSORY system  Things are EFFERENT if they carry impulses away from a 95. What is efferent? region of interest 96. What system is usually efferent?  MOTOR system Structures  AXON bundles- they are white because myelin (fatty) sheaths 97. White matter is composed of…? cover the axons 98. Gray matter is composed of…?  CELL BODIES  Huntington’s 99. When you have death of gray matter,  (Don’t stress…I don’t think this was important, just what disease do you have? commentary from Fall 2012) 100. Which lobe do you find the cerebral  FRONTAL LOBE cortex, dopamine, and future consequences together with long-term memories? 101. Which lobe contains the  PARIETAL LOBE somatosensory cortex? 102. Which lobe contains the auditory  TEMPORAL LOBE cortex? 103. Which lobe contains the visual cortex,  OCCIPITAL LOBE a place where hallucination generally happens? 104. Which structure is most associated  CEREBELLUM with motor coordination and learning? 105. Which structure is most associated  BASAL GANGLIA with motor control planning? A. What are some of the components of the  The striatum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus are Stephanie Nguyen NSC 3361: QUESTIONS FOR (LECTURE 1&2) INTRO+ANAT PPT Spring 2013 basal ganglia? part of the basal ganglia  CORPUS CALLOSUM, which connects your left and right 106. What structure is cut to control hemispheres. By cutting this, you prevent the seizure on one seizures? hemisphere from going to the other.  Cingulate gyrus, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, 107. What structures are part of the limbic amygdala, nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex, cerebrum, system? diencephalon, midbrain…a lot…  Neural tube region during development that formed the 108. What is the diencephalon? thalamus, hypothalamus, and mammillary bodies A. What is the metencephalon?  Neural tube region that gives rise to pons and cerebellum 109. What structure is considered the  THALAMUS center brain? Its function is (also) motor control planning.  The hypothalamus controls the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS 110. What is the function of the SYSTEM (with pituitary gland and endocrine system) and hypothalamus? other metabolic processes. A. The hypothalamus controls…  Pituitary gland, autonomic nervous system, endocrine system 111. What are the mammillary bodies good  Memory for? 112. Sleep and arousal, temperature  Midbrain aka RETICULAR FORMATION control, and motor control are found in which structure? 113. The baby was in a coma because what  The reticular formation structure was not working? 114. What do you find in pons?  Motor and sensory nuclei that go to the face 115. What do you call the structure that is  MEDULLA the transition of brain to spinal cord? 116. What structure is the RESPIRATORY  MEDULLA DRIVE?  The MENINGES are a protective membrane that wraps around 117. What are the meninges and what is the brain and spinal cord. From the outside, it goes from the the order from the skull to the brain? DURA MATER to the ARACHNOID MEMBRANE to the PIA MATER.  The dura mater is the toughest (like a cardboard box) and the 118. Which layer of the meninges is the pia mater, which is only 2 cells thick, is the thinnest (like thickest and which is the thinnest? wrapping paper) 119. Which layer of the meninges contains  The arachnoid membrane connective tissue, with CSF and blood vessels? 120. Someone has an injury and there is  SUBDURAL HEMATOMA bleeding under the dura. What do you call this?  There is a block in the transport of fluid, which causes the fluid 121. What is the cause of hydrocephalus? to build up in the ventricles 122. What is the neocortex?  A term scientists use to describe how the cerebral cortex has SIX layers (maybe in the future, the human brain will have Stephanie Nguyen NSC 3361: QUESTIONS FOR (LECTURE 1&2) INTRO+ANAT PPT Spring 2013 18!) 123. What is the disorder when someone’s  PACHYGYRIA – also means “thick skin”. This leads to death or brain does not have 6 layers, often less? mental retardation 124. Between the anterior cerebral artery  The Circle of Willis and the posterior cerebral artery, what do you find? 125. What is the largest artery in lateral  The MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY view, making this a very common area for strokes? 126. What do you call the cell body that  The Soma contains the nucleus? 127. Where do you find genetic  The Nucleus information? 128. Where does protein synthesis take  Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum place? 129. What structure regulates composition  The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum of cytoplasm?  The Golgi Apparatus is stacks of flat membrane compartments that packages products for shipment in the cell.  When the Golgi does not work properly, as in LOWE 130. What is the golgi apparatus? What happens when this does not work properly? SYNDROME, sacs that are sent out from the golgi leak, so whatever was inside the sacs, like neurotransmitters, are empty or not enough by the time they reach destination. 131. Why is the neuron membrane a lipid  It is a charge separator – it is the main cellular feature that bilayer? permits a neuron to act as a small battery 132. Give some examples of intrinsic  Receptors, ion channels – they make neurons have necessary proteins. properties for signaling 133. Which part of the cytoskeleton is 10  Neurofilaments nm thick? 134. Which part of the cytoskeleton is 20  Microtubules nm thick? 135. Which part of the cytoskeleton is 5 nm  Microfilaments thick? 136. Which part of the cytoskeleton is made  Microtubules – they are good for movement – these are of tubulin? dynamic 137. Which part of the cytoskeleton is made  Neurofilaments – these are static of twisted protein cables? 138. Which part of the cytoskeleton is made  Microfilaments- they are associated with the cell membrane- of actin? these are dynamic 139. Anterograde transport goes which  Moves from soma to terminals  Uses KINESIN direction and uses which protein? 140. Retrograde transport goes which  Moves from terminals to soma  Uses DYNEIN direction and uses which protein? 141. What do you call it when microtubules  LISSENCEPHALY break, and things can only travel in white matter? 142. Describe what MELAS syndrome and  This is mitochondrial energy failure  The 14 year old Vietnamese girl had this who had it. Stephanie Nguyen NSC 3361: QUESTIONS FOR (LECTURE 1&2) INTRO+ANAT PPT Spring 2013 Neuroimaging  CT- x-ray absorption shows density- this uses little radiation  MRI- Strong magnets help show tissue density- this has no radiation 143. What is the difference between CT,  PET shows brain ACTIVITY with radioactive chemicals- (aka MRI, PET, and fMRI “functional CT”)  fMRI- detects changes in BRAIN METABOLISM – can show how networks of brain structures collaborate


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