BTM7103-8, WEEK 2, RESEARCH DESIGN, NCU
BTM7103-8, WEEK 2, RESEARCH DESIGN, NCU BTM7103-8
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by JC11 on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BTM7103-8 at Northcentral University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Research Design in General at Northcentral University.
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Date Created: 04/09/16
NORTHCENTRAL UNIVERSITY ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Student: THIS FORM MUST BE COMPLETELY FILLED IN Follow these procedures: If requested by your instructor, please include an assignment cover sheet. This will become the first page of your assignment. In addition, your assignment header should include your last name, first initial, course code, dash, and assignment number. This should be left justified, with the page number right justified. For example: Save a copy of your assignments: You may need to resubmit an assignment at your instructor’s request. Make sure you save your files in accessible location. Academic integrity: All work submitted in each course must be your own original work. This includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by your instructor. Knowingly submitting another person’s work as your own, without properly citing the source of the work, is considered plagiarism. This will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course. It may also result in academic dismissal from the University. BTM71038 John Halstead, PhD Research Design Assignment 2 Faculty Use Only <Faculty comments here> <Faculty Name> 2 Introduction When a researcher develops a project, the researcher must take steps to ensure the validity of the project. As data is collected, it must be validated or deemed accurate and correct before it becomes useful. Data without validation is rather meaningless and could be inaccurate or even false if not properly vetted. Throughout this paper, steps will be taken to compare and contrast characteristics the three types of validity: (a) external, (b) internal, and (c) construct validity. This paper will also include a discussion of the threats to validity and the potential issues that can impact the validity of the proposed research. A researcher can potentially mitigate a significant portion of validity issues by taking the time to identify potential issues up front and developing solutions. Once the most likely issues are identified, solutions can be thoroughly thought through and implemented if the need arises. The chosen topic for the research within this week’s assignment is based upon the global product launch processes. The portion of the global launch process that is to be the focus of this research project is developing new and improved ways to bring a product to market worldwide. Throughout this paper a discussion will be held on each type of validity and how each relates to the global product launch process. Construct Validity Construct validity is concerned with studying whether or not variables are adequate and accurate. This process and concept is put into place for the purpose of accurately measuring the variables identified and the data collected (Cozby, 2012). In layman’s terms, construct validity is the ability to make accurate inferences from the data collected (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). By taking results in and identifying how closely the overall concept actually reflects reality is the 3 overall purpose of construct validity (Braun & Kuljanin, 2015). Within the study of global product launches, one of the constructs will be the level of communication required to perform a successful product launch. The construct of the level of communication levels then can be more specifically addressed to ensure a successful launch. If the assumption states that on average a consumer receives twenty emails during the prelaunch, launch, and post launch period, this same strategy could as the validity baseline. Internal Validity Internal validity takes a look specifically at the conclusions of accuracy in regards to cause and effect. Internal validity refers to the ability to make connections and conclusions from the collected data. This concept is also defined as the approximate truth regarding cause and effect relationships (Cozby, 2012). Internal validity refers to the amount of control that a researcher can place on the variables of a particular study. If a researcher is able to identify known truths about the variables and apply them across each portion of the study, the researcher can limit the number of factors influencing the outcome. For example, a researcher can limit the types of product launches that will be part of the study to those countries with a particular level of economic status. If this concept is utilized, the researcher can limit data collected to a selected set of countries, for example, thirdworld countries. By utilizing a similar economic status as a variable, a researcher would be able to limit data collection to the amount of product purchased within poor countries. The study could potentially show a price point for a particular type of product, such as a type of beverage, where consumers would still be willing to purchase that product (Halperin, Pyne, & Martin, 2015). External Validity 4 External validity is another type of vetting process that needs to occur to ensure the best possible chance at an accurate study. External validity concerns whether we can generalize the findings of a study and allocate them in other settings (Cozby, 2012). It is also defined as the degree to which the conclusions in a researcher’s study would hold true for other persons in other places and at other times. To simplify this concept, external validity could be thought of as stereotyping. A researcher that attempts to not only draw inferences from the data and apply them in a broad fashion to various types of people and at different times, may end up with a useless study. An example of this within the global product launch would be to apply data to another group blindly. If a researcher was able to state that ninety percent of children like Toy X in Japan and attempts to make the same correlation in Ethiopia, the accuracy of this assumption may be false. The toy liked by the children in Japan could be a high tech gadget that a child with a strong educational background may enjoy. This same toy presented to children living within a poverty stricken area like Ethiopia may be overly complex for those children living in poverty with limited educations and access to high tech toys. In this scenario the data collected and applied across the board would most likely be inaccurate and false. To reduce the possibility of inaccurately applying data, a researcher would have to collect a variety of data including economic data and the educational level of the children. By incorporating additional criteria, a more accurate picture can be drawn from the data. Threats to Validity There are a variety of threats to external and construct validity. Creswell (2013) discussed the potential internal validity threats. He defined the threats as procedures, treatments, or experiences of participating individuals that threaten the researcher’s ability to come to correct 5 conclusions about the data collected. In the study based upon a global product launch, the results could be skewed if differing types of individuals are interviewed. Differing results could be collected based on individuals with significant experience versus those with limited experience with launches. Internal threats could also exist between those that have a degree in marketing over those that have experimented their own way to success. Without highlighting the differences between the types of individuals interviewed, the end result may show a different outcome than expected. While internal validity is one area where threats to an accurate study exists, external validity is another area to review for potential threats. External validity threats exist when experimenters draw incorrect conclusions from acquired data and attempt to apply the inferences to situations, people, or places that are not truly applicable with that data (Creswell, 2013). One of the threats to external validity is with the study of a global product launch is making the assumption that success in one region of the world will be the same in another region of the world. A very broad but easily understood example of this would be the marketing of pork in various regions of the world. While the researcher may find that a particular pork product is successful in China, the world’s largest pork consumer, and then makes the assumption that the same pork product would be just as successful in Argentina. Argentina ranks amongst one of the lowest pork consuming countries and certainly would not be as successful in the sale of pork products (Pork, n.d.). A simplistic idea such as the sale of a pork product in various locations throughout the world can make it easy to understand the overall concept of threats to internal validity. While this may provide a more extreme stereotype, a researcher will also need to review those items that are more closely related. A launch of a product in the world of fashion 6 may be a bit more difficult to identify the internal threats. In this instance an internal threat to launching a particular high fashion would be assuming that individuals in Australia would accept the designs and materials of the product in Africa. The study would be a bit more effective if it were limited to a particular region. Conclusion Validity is an extremely important concept to consider while conducting a research study. A researcher is responsible for not only identifying and collecting appropriate data from a variety of sources, but is responsible for ensuring the data stands on it’s own and is applicable to the study. The researcher will need to be cognizant of three different types of validity; construct validity, internal validity, and external validity. Each area must be reviewed and steps taken to identify potential issues or threats to the study. The threats that are identified then must be mitigated to ensure the results to a study are accurate. Whether the threats to a research project are internal or external, the results can skew an entire study; creating a study that is relatively useless. In order to begin processing and understanding potential threats to validity, a specific topic for research was identified herein. The topic of global product launches is an area that depends on collecting data from a variety of sources to validate successful processes and procedures. A few areas that the data collected can be impact a product launch can include the type of product being launched, the region of the world the product is launched in, and the backgrounds of the individuals responsible for the launch. By taking the time needed to identify potential threats to a successful study, a researcher has the ability to mitigate a significant portion of possible inaccuracies. The paper took a look at the various types of threats to the validity of 7 data collected as well as potential ways to mitigate the identified threats. A researcher must take the time to think through potential issues with the study at hand and ensure the proper individuals are interviewed and the best possible results achieved. 8 References Braun, M. T., & Kuljanin, G. (2015). Big data and the challenge of construct validity. Industrial & Organizational Psychology, 8(4), 521527. doi:10.1017/iop.2015.77 Cozby, P. C. (2012). Methods in behavioral research. Boston, MA McGraw Hill Higher Education Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications Halperin, I., Pyne, D. B., & Martin, D. T. (2015). Threats to internal validity in exercise science: a review of overlooked confounding variables. International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance, 10(7), 823829. Pork. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved January 1, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pork Trochim, W., & Donnelly, J. (2008). The research methods knowledge base. Mason, OH Cengage
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