Chemistry 2-8 20002
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20002 at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Charles Lake in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Week of Monday 28 1 Elemental Abundance i Except Be b Elements found in the Earth natural i lron ii Oxygen iii Silicon iv Magnesium v Nickel 2 Element Facts a 116 known elements b 90 elements found in nature c 80 elements are stable 182 up to Lead 3 Components of Matter a based on rows and columns organized by various traits of the elements i Mendeleev Russian chemist b Main group elements i 12 1318 c Transition elements i 312 d LanthanidesActinides e MetalsNonMetals 4 Groups a elements in the same column 18 b International Union of Pure and Applied Chem 118 c Chemical Abstracts System 1A VIIA d e group 2 f group 18 g group 17 5 Periods a same row relative energy level i Period 1 low energy level elements ii Period 7 high energy level elements 6 Valence vs Core Electrons a inner electrons b outer electrons that determine chemistry of an elements i Group 1 l valence electron ii Group 2 2 valence electrons iii Group 3 3 valence electrons iv Up to Group 8 v Each period is an outer shell of electrons c Group 1318 i Group number10number of valence electrons ii SiDgroup 14D14104 valence electrons iii Si4 Dgroup 14141040 valence electrons iv P339 Dgroup 15D151038 valence electrons 7 Isotopes a atom that has various mass numbersdifferent number of neutrons stable vs unstable i 126CD6 ii 136CD7 iii 146CD8 not stable slow diffusion i Nuclear stabilities change c Three Isotopes of Hydrogen i 1p 0n mass number1 8 Weighted Averages a add all values and divide by number of values i 24333 ii 1321341333 1 13the quotweightquot b weights are not evenly disturbed i 351005 cents5210010 cents131001 cent ii 175cents52cents013cents708 cents 9 Atomic Mass a natural isotopes that make up an element i Neon has 3 isotopes 1 9048 20Ne 2 027 21Ne 3 925 22Ne ii Neon20 contribution 9048100200amu181amu 1 Amuatomic mass unit iii Neon21 contribution 027100210amu0057amu iv Neon22 contribution 925100220amu204amu v 1810057204202amu 10 Adapting Charge a Number of electrons atoms i Sodium Na 11 e391e39Ne 10e39 ii Oxygen O 8e392e39Ne 10e39 b Group 8DNoble gasesD8 valence electrons i Very stableow energy 11 Charges for Main Group Elements Al 3 0 2 N 3 Ra 2 Cs 1 C 44 12 Electronegativity ThrDQDO39QJ ability of an atom to attract electrons O39QJ Rough trends in EN i Noble gases none stable rhme ii EN decreases as the elements move away from group 7 iii Fluorine FDhighest EN 40 iv Francium Frleast ENCesium 07 v Oxygen O second highest EN 35 1 Very radioactive 2 ATP 3 Antioxidants element loses electrons and becomes a i n Reduction element gains electrons and becomes a compounds are always electrically neutral The charge contribution from the cation is negated by the charge contribution of the anions
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