Week 5 Notes
Week 5 Notes History 3625
Popular in War in Europe and America Since 1500
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Chong on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 3625 at Georgia State University taught by Dr.Robin Conner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see War in Europe and America Since 1500 in History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Week 5: 02/09/2016 – 02/11/2016 The Civil War, 1861-1862 1. What were the advantages of both sides? 2. What are the strategies of the Union/Confederate that lead to victory between ’61 and 61? 3. What is the significant of the 1962 Union Campaigns in the East and the West? By the 1850s, there was a lot of political tension and a split between the North and the South. The Republicans gained power in the North. “Bleeding Kansas,” 1856 “Popular Sovereignty”: state and government is regulated and ruled by the majority consent of its people through elections. o Lots of problems regarding individuals stuffing the ballot boxes with votes. o Kansas wins leaning towards being a free-state. John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry, VA, 1859 Goal: to seize weapons from the Federal Arsenal to give the weapons and ammunition to slaves. Abraham Lincoln Very ambiguous, not sending clear messages on his view on slavery. He won 40% of the votes, not by popularity, but by receiving a large amount of the electoral votes. o Not very popular due to him being a threat towards slavery. Winter of 1860 At this point, Abraham Lincoln is a sitting duck. Crittenden Compromise: o Allows the spread of slavery with the constitutional protection by the government. Abraham Lincoln rejects this Compromise. Fort Sumter: April, 1861: the Fort is surrounded, and running out of supplies and rations. o Abraham Lincoln needs to make a choice: Either send ships for supplies and risk an attack by the confederate or let the Fort fall. Lincoln lets the Confederates know that these supplies were not items/weapons of war. Davidson attacks preemptively against Fort Sumter. o Lincoln sees this as an act of war, official declaration of war against the South. ~75k volunteers join the army. Lincoln also focuses on putting pressure on Border States to stay loyal to the Union. North South ~22 million (Free Whites) ~5.5 million (Free Whites) ~4.5 million (Slaves) Army: ~16k soldiers, ~80 officers Army: No soldiers, 290 officers Navy: 90 ships Navy: 0 ships Manufacturing: 110k (~90+% of them Manufacturing: 18k (most of them dedicated dedicated to iron/coal) to cotton and textiles) Railroad: 22k miles Railroad: 8.5k miles Livestock: 60% Livestock: 40% Farm Acreage: 75% Farm Acreage:25% Although the numbers clearly show the North’s advantage, they did not win as easily as they thought they would. “Colton Diplomacy” Lincoln believed that France and Britain would join against the South. Britain relied on the South and their textile manufacturing, especially with their debt. Many military trained students from the North left the union for the Confederate. New Military Technology: Railroads, Telegraph, Armed gunboats o Upgrade everything to steam power. Claude Minié Developed the hollow-based guns. o This increased the range from about 100 yards to 400 yards. Quickly swathed from flintlock to percussion cap triggers. Fort Pulaski: “State of the Art” institution. Located between Savannah and Tybee Island. Despite fortification, the fort surrenders within 30 hours. Goal The North’s goal is to unite the Union, not to end slavery. “Scott’s Great Snake” o Concept doesn’t require fighting, but the overall focus is binding the states together. Bull Run o The most costing battle with a loss of 6k soldiers on either side, ~2500+ wounded. George B. McClellan (Lil Mac) o Takes command of the (Union) Army of the Potomac (July, 1861). o He trains and builds up his army to about 100k soldiers. o Asks to take his army to the Virginian Peninsula and to attack Richmond. Requests reinforcements. Richmond: ~100k Unions, ~60k Confederates. Fort Henry & Donelson o Grant sends his naval power and infantry. o Grant takes over while Johnston counters the Union in Shiloh. Shiloh: ~20k casualties, ~5k dead Stonewall Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign, May - June, 1862 o “Foot cavalry” used to describe the swiftness of his troops. “Granny Lee” takes charge of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia (June 1862) Seven Day Battle: Lee Attacks, McClellan’s Exposed Flank, June, 1862 o McClellan withdraws from Richmond, July 1862 McPherson’s Argument Initial Motivation: 1. Reason for Enlisting a. Peer pressure from community. b. Protect their pride and honour – Patriotism. c. Novelty – “Rage militaire” and the “Elephant” d. Law & Order: “Battle for 1 year or Rebellion for 50?” 2. Role of the American Revolution: a. Commitment to preserve the Union. b. Confederate fighting for liberty and property. Combat Motivation: 1. Role of Leadership: a. Promotions through elections by the troops. i. Can cause problems due to inadequacy or a lack of support. 2. Others: a. Adrenaline rush – “Fight-or-flight” b. External reasons: i. Soldiers who shoot others due to cowardice ii. Drunk officers were not motivating. “Sustaining” Motivation 1. Effects of Emancipation a. Most Northerners do not care for emancipation until they see the harshness of slavery. i. The fight against is considered a moral justification against inhumaneness. 2. Sense of brotherhood and community. 3. Vengeance against the South. 4. Religion. Evidence Most soldiers were literate (mostly white and officers) o Black soldiers were mostly illiterate. Immigrants and Blacks mostly unrepresented. Book written right after Vietnam, which may have influenced McPherson’s writing. Defense v. Power Issue of romanticism: Letters were very colourful and assumed to focus on a particular audience. o Takes the letters and evidence at face value due to their own experience. Civil War: 1862-1863 1862: revise policy on Southern property o Do not loot, do not plunder or damage. This is to focus on not provoking loyal Southerners. Summer of 1862 o A Preliminary Emancipation was written by Lincoln. o However, there was very weak military backup with his decision. Lee Invades Maryland, September, 1862 o Very high success in battles so far—Lee gets cocky. o Still banking on Britain and their support. o However, due to too many casualties, this becomes a major setback. McClellan finds a copy of Lee’s orders and Plans. o He also still believes that he’s outnumbered, so he waits for reinforcements and slowly moves towards Antietam. o Loses the opportunity to end the war. Matthew Brady: “The Dead of Antietam” o Takes photographs of the aftermath and brings it home to display. o ~22k Casualties: considered the bloodiest single day of American history. Outcome: o Lincoln, tired of his failures, finally fires McClellan. o January 1, 1863: Lincoln declares the Emancipation Proclamation U.S. Colored Troops enrolled under this decree. This does not affect the slaves in the Border States. E.P. frees slaves in areas “in rebellion” And although the Confederates believe that they are an autonomous entity, the Slaves don’t care. This leads to an increase of Black soldiers in the Union Army— show allegiance and duty to the Union. Focus: now it’s not just about the Union, but about the future of Slavery. a. This causes a lot of internal division and riots in the North due to the Draft. i. The riots become violent, in which Lincoln is forced to send backup. b. Most immigrants believe that there is no reason for them to fight and be forced into a draft when they don’t support the cause. Union Commanders, 1861-1863 There were repeated attempts against Lee, and although outnumbered, he was still able to defend Virginia. Chancellorsville, VA, May, 1863: The Cost of Victory Causalities: a. Lee: ~13k (22%) — also loses a lot of resources as a result. b. Hooker: ~17k (13%) — more deaths, but lesser amount of losses than Lee. Death of Stonewall Jackson through Friendly Fire Lee strengthens his sense of invincibility. Lee goes to PA in June to focus on foraging. Hooker is fired, George Meade replaces him. Meade and Lee accidently meet in Gettysburg. Gettysburg: Day 2 Confederate focuses their efforts to seize high ground. The Union and Confederate race to Little Round Top — the Union wins. Lee refuses to back out despite their topographical disadvantage. Gettysburg: Day 3 — Pickett’s Charge Intense artillery fight: lasts about ~2 hours. o Lee makes the mistake of overshooting. ~13k Confederate soldiers march towards the Union o Less than 50% survive the attack. Other issues that also affected the battle: o Lee recently had heart attack, suffering from other health issues. o Focused on going to Pennsylvania determined for a decisive battle. o He went on the offense when he should’ve focused on defense.
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