New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CHEM 1030 Week 13 Notes

by: Alyssa Anderson

CHEM 1030 Week 13 Notes CHEM 1030

Marketplace > Chemistry > CHEM 1030 > CHEM 1030 Week 13 Notes
Alyssa Anderson

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the material we went over on April 12 and April 14. It includes diagrams and worked examples. Enjoy!
Fundamentals Chemistry I
Dr. Streit
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Fundamentals Chemistry I

Popular in Chemistry

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030 at a university taught by Dr. Streit in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.


Reviews for CHEM 1030 Week 13 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/09/16
Chemistry Notes Week 13 NOTE: May 1st- Chemistry final review session An oxidation-reduction (or redox) reaction is a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another A. Oxidation is the loss of electrons B. Reduction is the gain of electrons 2+ C. Reducing agents (Zn loses two electrons and is oxidized to Zn ) 2+ D. Oxidizing agent (Cu gains two electrons and is reduced to Cu) E. A redox reaction is the sum of an oxidation half-reaction and a reception half- reaction The oxidation number is the charge an atom if electron were transferred completely A. H2(g) + F2(g) —> 2HF(g) B. The oxidation number of H i2 0 C. The oxidation number of F i2 0 D. The oxidation number of HF (+1)(-1) Oxidation Numbers (Assign the numbers to the elements in the compound KMnO4-) A. Step 1: Start with the oxidation numbers you know 1. K is +1 2. O4 is -8 (-2x4) 3. So Mn has to be -7 B. Step 2: The numbers in the boxes (total contribution to charge) must sum to the original charge To assign oxidation numbers: A. The oxidation number of an element, in it elemental form, is 0 B. Figure out the charges through the periodic table C. Know the elements that nearly always have the same oxidation number Oxidation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions A. In a displacement reaction, an atom or an ion in a compound is replaced by an atom of another element B. Zinc displaces (replaces) copper in the dissolved salt C. Zn is oxidized to Zn 2+ D. Cu 2+ is reduced to Cu Concentration of Solutions A. Molarity (M), or molar concentration, is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution B. Molarity (M) = moles solute (moles) / liters solution (L) C. Can also be written as L = mol/M D. Can also be written as mol = M x L Dilution A. Dilution is the process of preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one B. Moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilution C. Example: In an experiment, a student needs 1.00 L of a 4.00 M KMnO4 solution. A stock solution of 1.00 M KMnO4 is available. How much of the stock is needed? 1. Use the relationship that moles of suction before dilution = moles of solution after dilution to find the missing part. 2. To make the solution: pipet 400 mL out of solution and into 1.00 L volumetric flask and carefully dilute to the calibration mark D. Because most volumes measured in the laboratory are in milliliters rather than liters, it is worth pointing out that the equation can be written as M x cL = M c mL d d E. A series of dilutions that may be used to prepare a number of increasingly dilute solutions is called serial dilution 1. Step 1: Prepare a dilute solution from the stock 2. Step 2: Dilute portion of the prepared solition to make a more dilute solution 3. Step 3: Repeat as needed Chapter 10 Energy and Energy Changes A. The systems is a part of the universe that is of specific interest B. The surroundings constitute the rest of the universe outside the system C. Universe = System + Surroundings D. The system is usually defined as the substances involved in chemical and physical changes E. Thermochemistry is the study of heat (the transfer of thermal energy ) F. Heat is the transfer of thermal energy G. Heat is either absorbed or released during a process H. SI Unit is a Joule (J). Often calories are used and 1 calorie is the amount of heat required to raise 1 g of water by 1*C I. 1 cal = 4.184 J J. calorie is not the same as a nutritional calories (Cal) K. 1 Cal = 1000 cal L. An exothermic process occurs when heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings (“Feels hot!”) M. An endothermic process occurs when heat is transferred from the surroundings to the system (“Feels cold!”) Thermodynamics A. Thermodynamics is the study od the interconversion of heat and other kinds of energy B. In thermodynamics, there are three types of systems: 1. An open system can exchange mass and energy with the surroundings 2. A closed system allows the transfer of energy but not mass 3. An isolated system does not exchange either mass or energy with its surrounding States and State Functions A. State function are properties that are determined by the state of the system, regardless of how the condition was achieved B. The magnitude of chmage depends only on the initial and final states of the system 1. Energy 2. Pressure 3. Volume 4. Temperature The First Law of Thermodynamics A. *triangle* U is the change in the internal energy B. “sys” and “surr” denote system and surroundings, respectively C. *triangle* U = Uf- Uiis the different of the erengies of the initial and final states Work and Heat A. The overall change in the systems initial energy is given by *triangle* U = q + w B. q is heat 1. q is positive for an endothermic process (heat absorbed by the system) 2. q is negative for an exothermic process (heat released by the system) C. w is work 1. w is positive for work done ON the system 2. w is negative for work done BY the system ΔU = q + w Enthalpy: Reactions Carried Out at Constant Volume or at Constant Pressure A. Sodium azide detonates to give a large quantity of nitrogen gas B. 2NaN3(s) —> 2Na(s) + 3N2(g) C. Under constant volume conditions, pressure increases D. Under constant pressure, volume increases E. Pressure-volume or PV work, is done when there is a volume change under constant pressure (w = -P*triangle*V) F. P is the external opposing pressure G. *triangle* V is the change in the volume of the container H. Under conditions of constant pressure, ΔU = q − PΔV AND ΔU = q + w Enthalpy A. The thermodynamic function of a system called enthalpy (H) is defined by the equation H = U + PV B. Pressure: pascal; 1Pa = 1 kg/(m s ) . 2 C. Volume: cubic meters; m 3 D.PV: 1kg/(m s ) x m = 1(kg m )/s = 1 J 2 E. Enthalpy: joules Equations A. For any process, the change in enthalpy is ΔH = ΔU + Δ(PV) B. If pressure is constant, ΔH = ΔU + PΔV C. Rearrange to solve for ΔU = ΔH + PΔV D. Remember, q = Δp + ΔV E. Substitute equation 3 into equation 4 and solve: q = (Δp − PΔV) + PΔV F.q p ΔH for a constant-pressure process G. The enthalpy of reaction (ΔH) is the difference between enthalpies of the products and the enthalpies of the reactants H. ΔH = H(products) – H(reactants) I. Assumes reactions in the lab occur at constant pressure 1. ΔH > 0 (positive)—> endothermic process 2. ΔH < 0 (negative) —> exothermic process


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.