PSY 320 Chapter 11 - Caffeine
PSY 320 Chapter 11 - Caffeine PSY 320
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Marc Gellman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Drugs & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
PSY 320 Drugs amp Behavior Chapter 11 Caffeine Caffeine Plants l Psychostimulant compound member of xanthine chemical class 0 Greatest effect upon CNS amp skeletal muscles Approx 90 of Americans consume caffeine on a regular basis Caffeine amp related compounds in plants 0 Found in kola nuts cocoa tree nuts amp coffee beans Most widely used psychoactive drug in the world 0 Average North American intake 200250 mgday 0 Some ppl regularly consume much more Can cause dependence amp interfere with functioning Belongs to a class of chemicals known as xanthines Xanthines The class of chemicals to which caffeine belongs O Theophylline A xanthine found in tea 0 High doses used in asthma medication Effects relax bronchial smooth muscle in the respiratory system improves breathing Theobromine A xanthine found in chocolate 0 More potent agent in CV system 0 O O Adenosine An inhibitory neurotransmitter through which caffeine acts Caffeinism Excessive use of caffeine 3 Main Sources 3 plants containing xanthines have been used by humans for thousands of years originating from 0 Coffee Middle East 0 Tea China 0 Cacao Americas All 3 played amp continue to play important cultural amp economic roles Virtually all coffee is made from 2 species 0 Caffea Arabica Milder avor takes longer to develop from planting requires a near tropical climate to grow 0 Caffea Robusta Stronger amp more bitter abor higher caffeine content expensive blends Tea 0 Varieties of tea 0 Black tea fully oxidized leaves 0 Green tea nonoxidized leaves 0 Oolong tea partially oxidized leaves 0 Caffeine Content 0 Pound for pound tea has more caffeine than coffee but 0 1b of tea leaves 200 cups of tea 0 1 lb of coffee 5060 cups of coffee Chocolate Theobromine PSY 320 Drugs amp Behavior Acts in a parallel fashion to caffeine but much less potent in its CNS effects 0 Caffeine 0 An avg cup of cocoa contains about 4 mg of caffeine History of Coffee 0 Origin of use in Ethiopia 0 First discovered in goats behaving strangely after consuming coffee berries Arabian medical book 900 AD suggested many medical uses 0 Practice then spread to 0 1400s Egyptother Arabic countries 0 1500s Middle East 0 1600s Europe 0 17th 18th century England 0 Coffeehouses spread 0 quotPenny Universitiesquot 0 Location for ppl to gather amp listen amp learn from literary amp political figures 0 England 1674 Women39s Petition Against Coffee 0 Argued against use of coffee on grounds that it made men impotent Coffee Consumption in the US 0 Use increased following taxation of tea amp the American revolution 0 Use also increased during amp after Prohibition 0 Per capita US coffee consumption 0 Peaked in 1946 O Declined as soft drink consumption increased 0 Current about 24 gallons of coffee per year Soft Drinks CocaCola 0 Developed as a quotnerve tonic or health drink in the late 18005 O Caffeine O Cocaine small amounts Named for 2 avoring agents coca leaves amp colakola nuts 0 Until 1906 beverage contained small amounts of cocaine 0 Coca leaves today are decocainized before shipment to the CocaCola plant Other Caffeine Sources 0 Soft drinks 0 US per capita soft drink consumption is 50 gallonsyear 0 Energy drinks 0 Overthecounter medications Banned Substance in Endurance Sports 0 Because of ergogenic effects on the heart amp bronchicals many sports banned caffeine 0 Creates significant improvement in endurance sports 0 Caffeine increases carb metabolism amp facilitates muscle glycogen replacement duringafter prolonged exercise 0 Boosts body39s repair system after exercise Manufacturing Coffee Preparation 0 Originally ppl chewed on coffee beans or put raw beans in hot water 0 Roasting improves avor aroma amp color from beans PSY 320 Drugs amp Behavior 0 Coffeehouses amp individuals originally roasted amp ground their own beans 0 Commercial roasting 0 Vacuum packing for longterm storage of ground coffee Decaffeinated Coffee 0 Processes to remove caffeine from the coffee bean O Soaking unroasted beans in organic solvent same as used in dry cleaning 0 Most common method in the US 0 Alternative Swiss water press not widely used Removes more of the coffee39s avor 0 Caffeine removed from coffee is used in soft drinks 0 CocaCola owns one of the largest decaffeinating companies Tea Production 0 Tea is grown in China Sri Lanka India amp Indonesia 0 Tea leaves picked by hand 0 One worker produces 10 pounds of tea per day 0 Tea leaves then 0 Dried O Rolled to crush leaf cells 0 Placed in a cool damp place for fermentation oxidation Pharmacology Absorption amp Metabolism Rapid oral absorption 0 Peak plasma levels reached within 3060 min of ingestion 0 Metabolized by hepatic P450 enzymes 0 CYP1A2 amp CYP2E1 0 Into active metabolites theophylline amp theobromine Halflife about 34 hours 0 Significantly increased in women pregnant or taking oral contraceptives Mechanism of Action 0 Caffeine amp other xanthines antagonize Adenosine O Adenosine neuromodulator normally produces sedation behaviors 0 Receptors present in almost all brain regions highest concentrations being in the Hippocampus cerebral cortex cerebellum thalamus Found in dopaminergic cells within the striatum 0 Has inhibitory effects on Cholinergic neurons in cerebral cortex 0 Dopamine neurons in basal ganglia 0 Caffeine binds to adenosine receptors amp inhibits adenosine effects producing a stimulant effect Physiological Effects Arousal EEG patterns elevating mood alertness 0 Fatigue decreases 0 Insomnia Dilation of vascular muscles waking 0 Constriction of blood vessels in brain 0 Increased heart amp respiratory rates 0 Increased diuretic effect increases urinary output PSY 320 Drugs amp Behavior 0 Stimulates skeletal muscle Effects of Xanthines 0 CNS effects 0 Enhances alertness causes arousal diminishes fatigue Adverse CNS effects 0 Insomnia anxiety muscle twitches 0 Over 500 mg panic sensations chills nausea clumsiness 0 Extreme high doses 510 grams seizures respiratory failure death 0 Cardiovascular effects 0 Low doses heart activity increases decreases or does nothing 0 High doses rate of heart contractions increases minor vasodilation in most of the body cerebral blood vessels vasoconstricted 0 Respiratory system effect 0 Can cause air passages to open amp facilitate breathing Behavioral Effects 0 Stimulation O Partially offsets fatigue on both mental amp physical tasks 0 May not improve performance in well rested individuals 0 High caffeine consumption among college students associated w lower academic performance 0 Headache treatment helps relieve both migraine amp nonmigraine headaches 0 Hyperactivity treatment high doses may decrease hyperactivity 0 Sobering up caffeine does NOT lower blood alcohol concentration does not help individuals 39soberup 0 Double dehydrating effects of alcohol amp caffeine Risk Factors 0 Cancer not a risk factor in human cancer 0 Teratogens 0 High consumption reduces women39s chances of becoming pregnant 0 Slowsstunts growth in fetus 0 Mixed research on whether caffeine increases risk of miscarriage 0 Heart disease 0 High intake may increase risk of heart attack 0 Particularly in ppl w other risk factors Harms 0 Dependence O Caffeine can function as reinforcer O Withdrawal symptoms include headache amp fatigue 0 Readily crosses placental barrier O Reaches comparable levels in fetus O Leads to significant blood levels in infants of mothers drinking caffeine while breastfeeding Distribution 0 Water solubility O Freely distributed thru all body uids Tolerance 4 PSY 320 Drugs amp Behavior 0 Can develop quickly amp be observed after 12 weeks of moderate use 0 Tolerance to caffeine39s sleepdisruptive CV respiratory amp motorstimulating effects 0 Other effects 0 Cognitive performance 0 Mood O Show little evidence of tolerance 0 Degree of tolerance to caffeine depends on which effect Dependence 0 Abstinence in regular caffeine users leads to mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms 0 Headache O Irritability 0 Depression 0 Drowsiness 0 Fatigue Withdrawal effects can begin win a few hours of abstinence but typically peak in severity btwn 2448 hrs Withdrawal symptoms usually disappear in 35 days 0 Caused in part by vasodilation amp increased blood flow 0 Caffeinism Excessive use of caffeine 0 Increased heart rate bloodvessel constriction breathing rate reduced appetite attention alertness positive mood O Unpleasant symptoms Nervousness 0 Irritability Tremors Muscle twitches 0 Insomnia 0 Flushed appearance 0 Elevated temperature Palpitations 0 Heart arrhythmias 0 Gastrointestinal disturbances
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