PSY 303, Week 3 Notes
PSY 303, Week 3 Notes PSY 303
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This page Class Notes was uploaded by Razan Alkhazaleh on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 303 at Pace University taught by Robert Rahni in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
02102016 The Brain and Cognitive Development 0 Early maturing females go through most of their stress around mid adolescence 0 Research on the brain is still under way 0 The adolescent brain is different than a child s brain 0 An adolescent brain is still in development c Synaptogenesis dramatic increase in connections between neurons important aspect of the brains development c vital neuron development occurs in childhood and adolescence 0 Researchers discovered that there are twice as many synaptic connections made than there will ever be used 0 With the onset of puberty levels of Neurotransmitters change 0 chemicals that carry info across the synaptic gap between one neuron to another 0 eX increase in dopamine occurs in both the prefrontal corteX and the limbic system during adolescence o dopamine plays a role in award seeking behavior 0 Neurons are connected in precise ways to form various structures in the brain 0 The most important structural changes in the brain during adolescence involve o The corpus callosum o The prefrontal cortex 0 The amygdala The Corpus Callosum widens The Amygdala The Prefrontal Cortext Prefrontal cortex This judgment region reins in intense emotions but doesn t nish developing until at least emerging adulthood Corpus callosum These nerve bers connect the brain39s two hemispheres they thicken in adolescence to process information more effectively 02102016 Amygdala The seat of emotions such as anger this area develops quickly before other regions that help to control it Adolescents come off as emotional because their mental development is lacking prefrontal cortex isn t adequately developed so they cant control judgementpassion The amygdala forms before any part of the brain The increase in risk taking behavior in adolescents most often results in negative outcomes Impulse control increased in a linear fashion from preadolescence to emerging adulthood New brain cells can be generated in adolescence Adolescent brains are extremely malleable so it is very possible to recover from brain injury Link between neuroscience and education key changes begin prior to adolescence ex the amygdala emotions etc 0 Education and considerably bene t adolescence ex education on behavior and decision making Cognitive developmental View 0 Piaget s Theory 4 stages of development 0 best knownwidely discussed theory of adolescent cognitive development c adolescents are motivated to understand their world because doing so id biologically adaptive o Adolescents organize their experiences and adapt their thinking to new idea to make sense of the world Cognitive Processes 0 Schema mental framework useful in organizing and interpreting information o Assimilation incorporation of new info into existing knowledgepast experiences 0 Accommodation adjustment of schema to new info 0 Equilibration a shift in thought from one state to another o Piaget s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage Infants gain knowledge of the world from the physical actions they perform on it Infants coordinate sensory experiences with these physical actions An infant progresses from re exive instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage Birth to 2 Years of Age Preoperational Stage The child begins to use mental representations to understand the world Symbolic thinking re ected in the use of words and images is used in this mental representation which goes beyond the connection of sensory information with physical action However there are some constraints on the child s thinking at this stage such as egocentrism and centration 2 to 7 Years of Age Concrete Operational Stage The child can now reason logically about concrete events understands the concept of conservation organizes objects into hierarchical classes classi cation and places objects in ordered series seriation 7 to 1 1 Years of Age 02102016 Formal Operational Stage The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical hypotheticaldeductive ways 11 Years of Age Through Adulthood focus on formal operational stage but have an understanding of remaining three stages 0 The Formal Operational Stage 0 emerges from 11 15 0 more abstract than concrete operational thought make believe situations hypothetical abstract proposition 0 idealism and possibilities o adolescents begin to reason more as a scientist does solve problems and test solutions systematically o thinking about themselves egocentrism 0 Not all adolescents are full edged formal operational thinkers o Developmentalists argue that Formal Operational Thought consists of two sub periods 0 Early PDT 0 Late PDT 0 Piaget s contribution current eld of cognitive development and current vision that children are active contructive thinkers o Belief that a concept doesn t emerge to be fully developed all of a sudden but rather it develops through a series of partial accomplishments and comprehensive understanding stages View on Education 0 VYGOTSKY S CRTISISMS 02102016 CRITICISMS cognitive abilities have found to emerge earlier than Piaget thought some also later than he indicated NEO PIAGETIANS 0 Culture exerts strong in uence on development that Piaget envisioned Wiisdom permits excellent judgement about important matters Personality related factors such as openness to experience and creativity are better predictors of Wisdom than cognitive factors like intelligence VYGOTSKY S THEORY 0 knowledge viewed as situated and collaborative learning 0 ZPD Zone of proximal development c importance of sociocultural in uences on children s development important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning 0 Social constructivist approach Vygotsky araltileC Irgrtr imm Cofgmiii ixeKaren11316 Strong emphasis on stages sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational and formal operational No general stages of development proposed Zone of proximal development language dialogue tools of the Schema assimilation accommodation operations conservation culture classi cation ZIv IvkquotJlg ik i ifi191le mime vii Imarmalxie nara jjQIL iif rii origin llr 39iggjgux plir in liiiilii til1Cdi li 1m 13iiiaillidlliiai r9 Education plays a central role helping children learn the tools of the culture Education merely re nes the child s cognitive skills that have already emerged o developmentcognition is not speci c enough to age 0 not adequate in describing how changes in socioemotional capabilities impact cognitive development c overemphasis in the role of language in thinking 0 Processing view 0 Attentionmemory o cognitive control control attentionreduce interferring thoughts 0 be cognitively exible 02102016 0 EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING 0 Decision making 0 Critical thinking 0 Creative thinking 0 Expertise o Metacognition o Domain speci c 0 Thinking skills 0 Cognitive Resources 0 capacity and speed information is transmittedretainedprocessed o evidence that the speed which tasks are completed improves dramatically across childhood and adolescent years 0 Memory retaining information 0 Short term limited capacity info retained for 30 seconds unless the info in rehearsed 0 increases extensively in early childhood 0 Working mental toolwork bench manipulate and assemble info when they make decisions solve problems and comprehend written an verbal language 0 the prefrontal cortex plays a more important role in working memory in late adolescence than early adolescence 0 Long term holds huge amounts of info for long periods of time 0 increases in earlymiddle childhood and improves in adolescence 0 Cognitive Control 0 effective control and exible thinking in a number of areas including controlling attention reducing interfering thoughts and being cognitively exible o cognitive control increases with age 0 Executive functioning 0 becomes increasingly strong during adolescence 0 once they attend to info and retain it and engage in cognitive control they use the info to engage in hi gher order cognitive activities such as making decisions thinking critically thinking creatively and engaging in metacognition 0 Decision making 0 adolescence is a time of increased decision making 0 older adolescents more competent than early adolescents 0 most people make better decisions when calm than emotionally aroused 0 social context plays a large role in adolescent decision making 0 Critical thinking 0 thinking re ectivelyproductively and evaluating evidence 0 adolescence important transitional period in development of critical thinking 0 cognitive changes that allow improved critical thinking during this period include o convergent produces one correct answer 0 divergent thinking produces more than one correct answer to one question more creative 02102016 Creative thinking 0 The ability to think in novel ways and discover unique solutions to problems 0 special concern creative thinking seems to be declining 0 teaching goal to help students become more creative 0 PsychometricIntelligence view 0 emphasizes the importance of individual differences in intelligence 0 Intelligence ability to solve problems and adaptlearned from daily experiences 0 Individual differences stable consistent ways in which people differ from each other what makes up personality unless there is an ailment 0 Intelligence tests 0 psychological tests are tools 0 effectiveness depends on the knowledge skill and integrity of the user Multiple intelligence 0 having a number of speci c abilities Sternberg s Triarchic Theory 0 analytical intelligence 0 creative intelligence 0 practical intelligence 0 Gardner s eight frames of mind 0 Verbal 0 Mathematical 0 Spatial o Bodily kinesthetic 0 Musical 0 Interpersonal o Intrapersonal Naturalist o Gardner everyone has all of these intelligences but to a varying degree 0 as a result we prefer to learn and process info in different ways 0 Social Cognition how individuals conceptualize and reason about their social worlds the people they watchinteract with their relationships with those people groups they participate in and the way they reason about themselvess and others 0 Adolescent Egocentrism heightened self consciousness of adolescents which is re ected in their belief that others are as interested in them as they are themselves and in their sense of personal uniqueness and invulnerability
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