New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 5 Notes

by: Madison Sundberg

Week 5 Notes History 225

Madison Sundberg
GPA 3.34

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here are the notes for Week 5! Fingers crossed for a snow day (or two!!!) and good luck on your quizzes if you haven't taken it yet!
U.S. History
Dr. Steven Reich
Class Notes
history, US History, JMU
25 ?




Popular in U.S. History

Popular in History

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Sundberg on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 225 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Steven Reich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.


Reviews for Week 5 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/14/16
Week 5 Notes (Lecture notes, Reich) The Politics of Market Expansion  How the ordinary people used the vote to influence the government to get what they need  New states west of the Appalachians open up voting to men over 21 years regardless of property ownership Background  Up until the 1820’s there is a “natural successor” to the (mainly Virginian) presidents o Factions begin to fracture  Economic nationalist system arose o Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams  Government must promote entrepreneurship throughout the country  Loose constructionists  Wanted federal aid for programs such as river dredging  Wanted a national bank  Wanted a national allegiance not a state/local allegiance  These people become the Whig Party  Jeffersonian Republicans o Strict constructionists o Favored state rights over strong federal power  Protect personal liberties o Become the Democratic Party Election of 1824  Last election of the old American Revolution  OR first election of the new 2 party system  Clay, Adams, Jackson, and Crawford run for president Democratic Expansion Through the 1830s There was an expansion of voting rights We see party politics emerging o New institutional way of organizing o Parties will have a political platform of wants, needs, and priorities  Intergenerational aspect  Put aside self-interest for greater good of the party  Required lots of organization o Van Buren (early political theorist) was afraid that the fracture between the two parties will be over slavery, splitting the anti-slavery and pro-slavery states Andrew Jackson was the first president to understand how politics had changed and how to use party politics to his advantage Language of the Revolution  Recall Brutus’ attack on the “Mercantile Dons”  William Leggett o Jacksonian Democrat o Uses press to discuss political parties “parade atmosphere” o Democracy vs. Aristocracy o Generated people to go out and vote The Bank War: Acid Test of Jacksonian Democracy  Second Bank of the United States as a Political Issue o Manages flow of money, but more importantly, flow of credit o Allows people to borrow money for entrepreneurial activities o Bank controls all credit and is untouchable to democratic check o Jackson vetos the re-chartering of the bank Chapter 9 (Foner)  First half of the 19 century: Market Revolution o Catalyst: series of innovations in communication and transportation  Roads and Steamboats o Steamboat, canal, railroad, and telegraph o Opened new land for settlement o Turnpikes were the first advancement in overland transportation o Shunpikes were created for people to avoid tolls so most private toll roads were not profitable o Improved water transportation helped move goods to markets o Robert Fulton was crucial to developing the steamboat and introducing it to the U.S. The Erie Canal (Foner, 322)  Completed in 1825  363 miles across upstate New York  Goods could now flow from the Great Lakes to NYC  Caused new cities to pop up o Buffalo o Rochester o Syracuse  New canal programs launched to try to match success of Erie Canal Railroads and the Telegraph (Foner, 323-324)  Railroads opened interior to settlement  Stimulated coal mining and iron manufacturing  Baltimore and Ohio: first commercial railroad o Began construction in 1828  South Carolina Canal and Railroad became first long distance line in operation  Telegraph provided instant communication o Samuel F. B. Morse o Used Morse Code o Sent over electrical wires Rise of the West (Foner, 324-326)  Western migrants that set up farms on unoccupied land without a clear legal title are called “squatters”  Settlement had reached the Mississippi by 1840  Settlers rushed to claim foreign land o Owned by Spain, Mexico, Britain, and Indians  Eastern Florida was acquired through the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 o Jackson led troops into area in 1818 and killed two British traders and several Indian chiefs o Sparked international crisis that ended with the treaty Market Society (Foner, 329)  Southern states produced mainly cotton, when the southerners moved west they brought slave-based agrarian society with them Commercial Farming (Foner, 330)  Northerners who moved West developed a combined economy of commercial farms and manufacturing cities  Farmers developed self-sufficiency o As the west became more settled, they could focus more on selling products than making/growing only enough for themselves  The steel plow was invented by John Deere in 1837 o Gave people the ability to rapidly subdue new prairie land  The Reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick in 1831 o Horse-drawn wheat harvester  Between 1840 and 1860, American output of wheat tripled City Growth (Foner, 330-331)  Large cities were important for trade and marketing reasons in the West o Cincinnati o St. Louis o Chicago-nation’s 4 largest city by 1860 Factories (Foner, 331-333)  Gathered large groups of workers under a centralized supervision  Replaced hand tools with power-driven machinery  Samuel Slater o English immigrant o Established America’s first factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island o Built a power-driven jenny by memory  “Outwork” system o Rural men and women would earn money by taking in jobs from factories  The Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 stimulated the need for the first large-scale American factory utilizing power machinery o This factory was established in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1814 o The people who opened the factory became known as the “Boston Associates” o Built a second factory in the 20s in Lowell on the Merrimack River  Factories were built on the fall-line to be able to harness water power  Eli Whitney o Invented the cotton gin o Perfected mass production of interchangeable part for small-arms  Eli Terry o Perfected mass production of interchangeable parts for manufacturing clocks  Wage pay became big in industrial cities o Workers paid an hourly or daily rate o Operated on fixed schedules Mill Girls (Foner, 333-334)  Early New England factories relied on female and child labor  Lived in boarding houses  Supervision of personal lives appeared restrictive  Many women valued the opportunity to earn money Immigration (Foner, 334-336)  Between 1840 and 1860 over 4 million people entered the U.S.  Mostly from Ireland and Germany  Most headed for Northern States where there were manufacturing jobs  Regular sailings began going from Britain to Boston and New York City  America’s political and religious freedom was attractive to Europeans  The largest number of immigrants were the Irish escaping the Great Famine o Filled flow-wage jobs that Americans avoided anyway  The German population included many money skilled craftsmen than the Irish population Nativism (Foner, 336-337)  Irish faced hostility because they were Roman-Catholic in a predominately Protestant society  Nativists believed the Irish threatened the idea of liberty, democratic institutions, social reform, and public education  New York City and Philadelphia had many violent anti-immigrant riots Transformation of the Law (Foner, 337-338)  New charter laws  By the 1830w most states replaced the granting of charters through specific acts of legislation with “general incorporation laws”, meaning any company to get a corporate charter if they pay a specific fee  Many people distrusted these charters Prosperity (Foner, 347-348)  The market revolution produced a middle class Race and Domesticity (Foner, 348-351)  Most free African Americans excluded from market revolution opportunities  Many suffered discrimination  Many black residents lived in the poorest, unhealthiest neighborhoods  They were not allowed to attend schools  Many built up their own institutions o African Methodist Episcopal Church  Women still had to remain “virtuous”  Only low paying jobs were available to women  Women’s husbands controlled their wives’ wages Early Labor Movement (Foner, 351-352)  Economic depression hit in 1837  Widening gap between wealthy and impoverished  Bankruptcy was incredibly common and debtors filled the prisons in major cities  1820s saw Workingmen’s Parties o Political organizations that tried to mobilize support for candidates that would push for free public education, an end to imprisonment for debt, and legislation limiting work to 10 hours per day  Unions and strikes became common  Orestes Brownson wrote “The Laboring Classes” in 1840 Chapter 10 Notes (Foner) Andrew Jackson (Foner, 355-356) Andrew Jackson was inaugurated on March 4 , 1829 1830s and 40s are known as the period of Jacksonian Democracy Symbol of the self-made man Property and Democracy (Foner, 357)  People began to challenge the property owning requirement for voting  Only the 13 original states required property ownership to vote  Non-Freeholders of Richmond petitioned the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829 for the right to vote Dorr War (Foner, 357-358)  Rhode Island drafted a new state constitution in 1841  Governor Thomas Dorr served 2 years in prison for treason  The war demonstrated how people felt about continued exclusion of any group of white men from voting  Legislature soon eliminated the property requirement for native- born men, both black and white Information Revolution (Foner, 359-360)  Explosion in printing due to increased public sphere  Steam-powered newspaper printing led to mass-circulation  “Penny Press”- reduced cost meant more people could afford to read the paper Race and Voting (Foner, 363)  In 1821 the New York constitutional convention removed property qualifications for white people and raised the requirement for black people  North Carolina disenfranchised free blacks in 1835  Pennsylvania did the same in 1839  By 1860 only 5 states in New England had equal voting rights for blacks and whites Panic of 1819 (Foner, 366-367)  The demand for American farm products returned to normal and the economic bubble burst  Speculators lost millions as demand for western land plummeted  The banks began to ask for money that they had loaned out  People who could not pay filed for bankruptcy and unemployment rose  Many states responded by suspending the collection of debts Missouri Controversy (Foner, 368-369)  James Tallmadge proposed that the introduction of more slaves be prohibited and the children of slaves in Missouri be freed at age 25  The problem of westward expansion of slavery arose Discussion (Lecture notes)  After War of 1812 there was a manufacturing/industrial revolution  Difficult to find work  Men went West  Left more jobless women back home  Lowell System o Lowell patented the power loom and started a factory o Employed young women o Regimented, difficult work o Labor was compared to slavery o True women possessed 4 virtues  Piety  Purity  Submissiveness  Domesticity  Factory girls wrote their own magazines like the “Lowell Offering”  “Voice of industry” also written by women painted a much darker picture of slavery  Lowell’s system was an experiment o Believed labor would improve the women o Gave women the opportunity to do something different o Wanted to change the view of factory girls from hookers to motivated, working citizens  Unlike “wage-slaves” in Europe  Slavery vs. Mill Work o Slaves are fed and clothed by masters o Women made less than what it cost to care for a slave  Didn’t really have a choice to leave because you worked for an overseer o Slaves had more stability  Scheduling is rough o Bells o Curfews  Slaver Wagons o Head-hunters o $1 per head o Lied about the work women would do  Dignity of Labor o Thought that labor degrading the dignity of a women is falsified o Labor means accomplishment o Women who work should be desirable because working women are virtuous, not the “true women” of society  True beauty come from how you care for others o True beauty comes from self-improvement and helping others improve  Is the term “wage-slavery” realistic? o Many people lived paycheck to paycheck o They were required to stick with the job regardless of how difficult or undesirable because they needed the money to survived o They were barred from other factories work if they quit Works Cited Foner, Eric. "Chapter 9 and 10." Give Me Liberty!: An American History. Seagull ed. Vol. 4. New York: W.W. Norton, 2014. N. pag. Print. Reich, Steven. “The Politics of Market Expansion.” James Madison University. Harrison Hall, Harrisonburg, VA. 10 February 2016. Lecture.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.