CHEM-C127 Separation Anxiety Lab Notes
CHEM-C127 Separation Anxiety Lab Notes Chemistry C127
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Brinser on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry C127 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Norman Dean in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 213 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry and Biochem I Lab in Chemistry at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
C127 Lecture 4 Notes- Separation Anxiety 2-4-16 Learning goals o Learn to use differences in physical/chemical properties to separate mixtures into pure components o Learn to draw separation diagrams to describe process o Learn how/when to perform extractions and vacuum filtrations o Learn fractional crystallization Safety/Waste Disposal o Review safety agreement, especially sections on protective clothing/chemical spills o Ethyl acetate has high vapor pressure and is flammable- keep away from heat, use in hood o Potassium nitrate solid should be placed in labeled waste bottle o Copper sulfate solution should be collected in aqueous waste bottle o Sand should be placed in used sand bottle o Ethyl acetate and mineral oil should be placed in organic waste bottle Why do chemists need to separate mixtures of compounds into pure components? o Searching for new pharmaceuticals from plants/microbes/algae o Toxicologists or forensic chemists trying to identify drugs or adulterants in materials o Industrial chemists who synthesize desired products along with unwanted byproducts Separation Techniques o Filtration- solid from liquid o Separation funnel- for two immiscible liquids (not dissolved in each other) o Distillation- for two miscible liquids o Fractional crystallization- for two soluble solids (or ones alike in solubility) Dissolve both solids in solvent Lower temperature to attempt to crystallize/precipitate one solid; one will hopefully be less soluble than other Filter precipitate out o Extraction- soluble solid from insoluble solid; done in two steps Dissolve one solid in mixture in suitable solvent Filter solution to separate soluble solid from insoluble Types of Crystalline Solids o Molecular Composite units are molecules Low melting points Ex. Ice o Ionic Composite units are formula units (cations and anions) High melting points Ex. Table salt o Atomic Composite units are atoms Nonbonding Held together by weak dispersion forces Low melting points Ex. Solid Xenon Metallic Held together by metallic bonds Variable melting points Ex. Gold Network covalent Held together by covalent bonds High melting points Insoluble Ex. Quartz (silicon dioxide- atoms are still base units, not molecules) For this lab: o ???????????? 3ecomes more soluble than ???????????????? as 4emperature increases o Will have more ???????????? 3n mixture than ???????????????? 4 o Ex. (See solubility graph in lab document) If we take 20???? 3???????? in 100????2???? ???? at 50℃ and cool the solution to 0℃, what will happen? 10???? would precipitate, because at 0℃, solubility of ????????3 is 10???? per 100???? ????2???? 10???? stays dissolved o Ex. If we have 5???? ????????????????4in 100???? ???? 2 at 50℃ and cool the solution to 0℃, what would happen? Nothing would precipitate, because solubility at 0℃ is 10???? per 100????2???? ???? o Things to consider: Simple mixture of two compounds fairly straightforward What if mixture has > 2 components? Plan out steps with separation diagram o Ex. Making a separation diagram: Soap dissolved in water will precipitate when an excess of sodium chloride is dissolved in the water. Starting items on top Add process next to vertical line o NOTE: Separation diagram for materials in this lab will be all the procedure you need in notebook
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