Non Human Primates
Non Human Primates ANTH 1102
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Birch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Non-Human Primates • Primatology: the study of nonhuman primates, including their behavior and social life o Ex. Jane Goodall § Studied chimpanzees and their environment § One of the most influential people • We belong to the primate order • 2 main primate suborders o prosimlii (prosimians) – more distant relatives of humans; includes tarsiers, lemurs and lorises o anthropoidea (anthropoids) – monkeys, apes, humans § we did not evolve from the other anthropoids § we share relatives but they evolved just as we did § closest to chimpanzee – 98% DNA • 2 Infra-orders o refers to noses and their shape – new world monkeys were isolated from catarrhines before evolution o platyrrhines (new world monkeys) § broad septum, flat nose • less time to warm before it reaches inside of body § all are arboreal (live in trees) • smaller because they live in trees • arms and legs are the same length • tails for balance in trees o catarrhines (old world monkeys, apes and humans) § narrow septum, “sharp” nose • more time for air to warm before it reaches inside of body § some are arboreal • many came down from trees and adapted § humans: longer legs, apes: longer arms § some terrestrial • have greater sexual dimorphism o male tends to be larger than female § related to terrestrial nature § male have larger bodies and more temperament – more aggressive • Why study primates? o Why have we adapted the way we have? o Interested in their biologic and cultural habits § Primates have societies § We can come closer to what the earliest human society/ancestor to us § We are primates – study ourselves § >95% DNA relation with gorilla § similar adaptive strategies § territorial primates: our own evolutionary trajectory § vocal and gestural communication systems § social groups needing communication § tools- ex. chimps use stick to fish termites § By studying primates, we’re essentially studying ourselves § Similar adaptive strategies in our evolution § Similar cognitive and behavioral patterns § They have societies • Primate tendencies o Vary because they evolved to different environments o Earliest primates were arboreal 1. Grasping – opposable thumbs § All primates have 5 digit hands and feet for grasping § Opposable thumbs – some primates § Evolutionary trade offs o Standing on two feet, lost the ability to grasp with feet 2. Reliance on sight – stereoscopic vision § Good depth perception – ex. grabbing limbs § Color 3. Hands as primary tactile organs § Accurate sense of touch – tactile § Ex. identifying with hands what you can’t see 4. Brain complexity § Enlargement and increased complexity of brain o Relatively large brain compared to body size compared to other species – permit locomotion (hands and feet), acute touch § Quick decisions o Ex. climbing trees/ adaptive choices 5. Parental investment – single offspring § Single offspring at a time – no litters § More maternal attention than other species – more learning opportunity to learn behaviors 6. Sociality § Goes with the parental investment § Very social – like whales, canines, packs, etc. § But primates are the most social – cooperation, group competition, ranking (alpha male/female) § Home bases/ home territories o Chimps have parties protecting space and food resources – violent conflict • Our closest living evolutionary relatives o All other species that were closely related no longer exist § We are the last branch of our genius alive o Chimp: ~98% shared DNA o Bonobo: ~97% shared DNA o Gorilla: ~95% shared DNA • Social Groups o Different social dynamics § Chimpanzee communities – 50 or more chimps in one community • Spread out within a range • Composed of extended kinship • Move between groups when no conflict • Dominant ranking o Males outrank females § Internal ranking of males § Internal ranking of females o Size, cleverness, and ambition are key factors of ranking § Gorillas – ~20 • Together most of the time • Mature silver back male is leader o Followed by younger, subservient males and women and children o When silver back gets old, another male originating from another group will challenge him § Male have to leave to make families § Youngest may stay • Aggression and Hunting o Chimps sometimes hunt monkeys m § Omnivores – males hunt and share the meat j o Gorillas § Vegetarians • Affiliative Behavior: Grooming o Hugging, kissing, picking bugs, grooming o Cooperative behavior • Reproductive strategies o Young are dependent on mother and group o Young play together – rough house o Mothers teach young • Cognitive Abilities o They can’t speak due to anatomy – not cognitive abilities o Gesture § Encouragement: groom, climb, flirt o Vocal calls § Mourning - sit vigil for a number of days • Cultural Behavior: Tool Use o Chimpanzees have been observed to use rocks to crack nuts and using sticks and leaves as tools o They don’t modify rocks our ancestors o Use objects in environment • Primate Evolution o Geological timescale o Era Cenozoic (65 mya) § Because dealing with fossils § Fragmentary fossils • From geological strata § Continents at this time were not all connected • At this time, we were attached to Europe § 65-54 mya: Paleocene Epoch • the earliest primate fossils consist of teeth that come from a site in Morocco • tiny skull from China • Arboreal • Similar in size to the modern mouse lemur • tropical or subtropical climate o warm, wet, rainforest o previous era ended the age of the reptiles/dinosaurs § good for mammals, bad for reptiles o early primate fossils were 60 mya in China (skull) and Morocco (teeth) § 54-34 mya: Eocene Epoch • dominated by prosimians, the ancestors of lemurs and tarsiers • primates in Africa, North America, Europe and Asia where warm, wet conditions sustained extensive rainforest • Anthropoids branch off during this time o Because we are diurnal – acting more in the day o Strengthened trend of navigating with vision rather than smell • Colonization of Madagascar by lemurs • Small size was beneficial because it was so warm and there were so many rainforests § 34-23 mya: Oligocene Epoch • really see a lot of primate diversification • scarcity of fossils o crust split open and exposed fossils o major geological and climactic change § North America and Europe split § India and Asia join § Cooling trend especially in Northern hemisphere where primates disappear • Tropical/subtropical areas § 23-5 mya: Miocene • Early Miocene o Proconsul: last common ancestor of old world apes and monkeys before they split o Earliest proto-ape fossils o Fossils related to living apes, humans and chimps o tree-dwelling, fruit-eating hominoid (the superfamily to which apes and humans belong) • Late Miocene o Gigantopithecus § jaw bone and teeth • ratios of other apes, helps us to suggest it weighed 1200 pounds and stood 3 meters tall § largest ape that ever lived § 2 species in South Asia: one in Asia and in Vietnam § not an ancestor • Sahelanthropus tchadensis o Discovered 10 years ago in Chad o Approximately 7 mya o Unclear whether it lived before or after human-chimp divergence § So few specimens o Might be related to chimps and humans but could be its own dead end • Between 5 and 8 million years ago our ancestors diverged genetically and behaviorally from those of the other African apes o Hominid: the superfamily to which apes and human belongs; any fossil or living human, chimpanzee, or gorilla o Hominin: hominids excluding the African apes; all the human ancestors that ever existed Firm trunks and branches, but other thin braches shoot off – fragmented fossil record
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