Bio Science 104 Week 3 Notes
Bio Science 104 Week 3 Notes 104
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shagun Gupta on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 104 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Stomata-a pore/opening for air to get in so air can get access to CO2 When a vacuole is full of water, the guard cells fill up with water (they are turgid). They swell up and open up the cell. They create the pore. When guard cells don’t have water, they close up VASCULAR TISSUES Xylem and Phloem Xylem- The way plants move water from roots to very up to the plant. All All the cells in xylem are dead. They only serve their purpose when they die. Tracheids: move water through pores in the sides Xylem Hardwood- angiosperms -have both vessels & tracheids) that make wood Softwood-gymnosperms-have only tracheids. Example-pine/fur Phloem- transports sugar and food molecules made during photosynthesis. Takes them from top of plant to bottom of plant. Sugar flows through cytoplasm Parenchyma Sclerenchyma-modified to provide support PLANT ORGANS 1. Stems 2. Roots 3. Leaves Shoot-Organ system Root-Organ -Stems Apical meristems-where cells divide before they become a specialized cell, and they elongate. Depending on where they are in the stem, they become dermal tissue, vascular tissue etc. ROOT SYSTEM: Monocots tend to have fibrous roots(80% of the time) Taproots-80% of the time, it’s a dicot. ROOT SYSTEM FUNCTIONS: Support Absorb water Nutrient Storage LEAVES Leaf blade: collect solar energy Veins: midrib and lateral veins Leaf stock-petiole Leaf bud-found in axil Single leaves Compound leaves-Leaf blade is subdivided into leaflets On a stem, there are nodes and internodes Internodes-elongation of twig Alternate-At each node, only 1 stem Whorled-subset of opposite (2 or more) MODIFICATIONS: Thorns Spines Prickles Outside of cacti-there are spines, no leaves Prickles-massive hairs that are fairly hard and fairly sharp Vines-never a couple more inches in diameter Tendril-what you find on veins WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS In stems-xylem and phloem. They travel together in vascular bundles Xylem-facing center of stem Phloem-facing outside of stem Vascular bundles-rigid by themselves. When you put rigid fibers around them, they become more rigid. Dicots: bundles are in a ring Monocots: spread throughout Cambium: mitotically active cells Wood: solid mass of Xylem cells Cell division= asymmetrical Apical meristem-right at the tip Root cap- necessary to protect meristem Root hairs-as cell mature after they elongate, they produce epidermal cells Surface area-more water can get into root Lateral root: repeating module Vascular cylinder: inside roots Cortex means around the inside All water coming into the root is coming through osmosis Cytoplasm in root hairs is going to be hypertonic to the soil or else water won’t go inside root after osmosis-evaporation through stomata on leaves Suction is being developed Water moves up through xylem, about 98% is lost through evaporation. The 98% water lost is the force needed to pull the 2% up. That 2% is used for photosynthesis. Osmosis pulls water into root hair (from soil) and xylem then pulls them up through transpiration. Cohesion-water molecules stick together PLANT PHYSIOLOGY We don’t want too much evaporation or else plants get dehydrated Leaves are mostly going to have stomata on underside of leaves. But in rainy areas, stomata is on the top of leaves, the bottom of leaves and everywhere else Palisade mesophyll: columnar cells -can have thick cells (½ of thickness of entire leaves) -they have all the chloroplast here Spongy mesophyll: Air and CO2 can travel around through air spaces on bottom
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