Week 2 Notes for Intro to Modern Europe
Week 2 Notes for Intro to Modern Europe HIST 3480
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Holub on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3480 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Richard Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Europe in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Paige DeWitt-Holub 1/25/16 12 Years Truce 1609-21 Civil War and Revolution, 1642-60 Charles I (1625-49) Oliver Cromwell, 1599-1658 New Model Army Ireland Restoration, 1660 Charles II (1660-85)) Cavalier Parliament Dissenters nd 2 Dutch War 1665-67 Great Fire, 1666 Plague, 1665-66 Louis XIV (1643-17150 Treaty of Dover, 1670 Test Act, 1673 Transubstantiation Tories Whigs (1681-85 James II (1685-88) Mary II William III Glorious Rev, 1688 – November. 1688 Hereditary Succession Declaration of Rights, February 13, 1689 -Bill of Rights, 1689 -John Locke (1632-1704) “contract theory” -Toleration Act, 1689 -Act of Settlement, 1701 -George I -Hanover -social historian – lives of ordinary people -12 year’s truce th -colonial struggle b/w Spain and Dutch (10 Century) Java, etc. -Spanish held Philippines of Southeast Asia, Dutch other -recognize sovereignty as you will leave -> the Dutch power is all in the East Indies $$ - nesting -1605-1606, no resolution Spain’s position continue to go -Spain offers Dutch a time-out, Spain still a declining though -de-facto independence for Dutch Republic -> England later 17 th -> absolutism of French Louis IXV -Tutor-Steward English Historian -French Revolution revival -religious-different factions of Protestants -Charles I vs. English Parliament and the Royal side lost the civil war and Charles loses his head -Oliver Cromwell - 1640’s –paid, professional army -“fire-breathing Puritan dragon” -one of the causes of the Civil War was a rebelliothin Ireland (Catholics)“connected to the demon”, early 17 century English, early Protestant Europe -anti-Christ had arrived, would rule and be renounced by revived Christ, anti- Christ = Pop -Irish Rebellion ruthlessly crushed (1644-1652) by Cromwell – Irish could surrender or die -army with about 1.3 billion people, 600,000 dead people die of destruction -1658 Cromwell (capable military leader) dies and relative chaos ensures -1660 – restoration of monarchy – Son of Charles II -Charles and younger brother, James, spent time hiding in colony with aristocrats) -Charles II and Louis 14 1 cousin issue not about family -Charles II invited back to England from France -Puritanism fractures in disappears 1640’s-50’s -> Quaker, Baptist (militant, had broken away from church and attracted ordinary people) -censorship of the press had completely broken down in the 14 -15 centuryth -1640’s-50’s Levelers – advocated actual democracy for adult men except maybe servants -Restoration, 1660 = overcome/undo -> society dominated by relatively small elite -Charles II – ultimate political compromiser because of his travels -1661 – “Cavalier Parliament” -> Loyalists who had lost property and respect under Cromwell – blamed Puritan -Puritan turns to dissenters in 1660 -punitive measures aimed at the dissenters of church of England (essentially thrown to jail kicked out of other churches) -atmosphere: Christ will reclaim UK -some Quakers tried to assassinate Cromwell -“Honeymoon Period”- Charles II and Cavalier about 5 years -> jubilation of supposed stability -2ndDutch War 1665-67 st 1 war -1652 – Cromwell England building a navy-access to commerce with English ends terribly 1667 – have English fleet naval thinkers begin to add strategic channel -Great Fire of London old part of town, fire insurance -The Great Plague – 1665-66 -kills about 70,000 people (Loudon population about 500,000) -population has about 11,000 – 12,000 people maybe God isn’t happy with Charles -whole issue of finance -Parliament had the right to alter taxes – pinch – penny doesn’t want to agree -issues between Charles I and Parliament: power and religion -Charles admires Louis XIV -Charles army of 4,000 men in France -get out from under Parliament -Treat of Dover -> public/private -> private: Charles goes on the French payroll to be paid 25,000 pounds a year not enough to run but enough to determine his bylaws I. Louis XIV and French are Catholics – Charles II has to pledge his Catholicism -1685 – publically declares on his deathbed -Louis 14 wants the British promise that the Dutch can partner with France – money, politics, religion -not quite what Parliament wants him to be doing -1673- Parliament decides to smoke Catholics out of Parliament out of Parliament military -Test Act in order to serve as a foundational occupation, they had to swear you believe in transubstantiation -eucharis = bread and blood actually become the blood of Jesus, as opposed to popular symbolism -suspicion about what Charles I is -Test Act, take oath that you don’t believe in it/Catholicism – many refused -hand of king, Lord of Admiralty James II, Charles did not leave heirs, so James’s progeny becomes the next rule -not many Catholics in England and less than 5% -Protestant question of a Catholic king -bloodline – “royal” blood Tories: -includes lesser craftsman and bakers -conservative, country gentlemen, losing sides or a least family -staunch supporters of Parliament Whigs: -want limitations on the power of king, much more strongly opposed to Catholicism -Dukes, counts, big-city merchant -factions in Parliament -absolutism = Parliament suspended slowly in lack of power -Whigs, political arrangement w/ dissenters, flaunting up in House of Commons -1681-5, 5-6 years later Parliament is not called, as his living off a France allocation -Catholic King James II -Charles (Anglican) failed effort to put illegitimate Duke of Monmouth -peasant orders, dead in a ditch -one idea is to wait for the person James to die (James II) -publically baptized of James Francis Edward the “Old Pretender” -dethroning reference -Anne Hyde has Mary and Anne, Mary 1673 – William III/Prince of Orange -most important politician in Dutch Republic, where there are no kings -leading the resistance to England, Dutch about to go under in late 1600’s with French attacking -Catholic boy born 1768 -> Parliament Bishops invite Mary’s husband to invade and take over England -Glorious Revolution 1688 – last successful invasion of England (Napoleon/Hitler failed) -Guy Fawkes Days – Nov. 5, 1688, 5,000 cavalry followers -James has an army led by Catholic officers -> James didn’t believe his son-and-law would do this treason – James made no friends, James runs away to Ireland, eventually to Versailles -“Bloodless Revolution” – cowardice exchange of power -Parliament: Tories (conservatives), argued baby boy was illegitimate, James ran away, so successor is Mary – hereditary succession -Whigs = throne vacant, Parliament should fill the gap for the king -> Mary is just a woman -Tory worry of commoner royalty -William come to become king- -compromise = William and Mary monarchs crowned jointly when they entered the Throne Room they had to agree to the Declaration of Rights – nothing conditional about absolutism -1689 Bill of Right – Parliament, not revolutionary ideas now codified in the law -1. Crown (king) cannot suspect laws that Parliament has already agreed upon -King/President – law is a dead-letter -2. No Catholic king/queen demand -3. Demand for frequent Parliament meeting -4. Freedom of speech -5. No permanent army -6. No taxation without representation -John Locke (Whig) – book in 1688, Locke had written a dangerous kind of work – published in 1690 -contract theory – if the king doesn’t uphold this theory, they can demand a new king -Tolerance Act (1689) -dissenters now have freedom of speech -no toleration with Unitarians who denied trinity (Newton, Jewish people, Catholics) -diffusing religious can’t challenge politics until late 19 century -Triennial Act, 1694 – King must call at least a new series of Parliament every 3 year – new elections and people -Act of Settlement, 1701 – Anne is going to become king or queen -related to George I -efforts of absolutists is dead 01/27 Bill of Rights 1689 Financial Revolution Bank of England 1694 Commercial Revolution Slavery Asiento Rights Triangular Trade Agricultural Revolution Popular Enclosure Manure Turnips, Alfalfa France Seed Yields Putting-out system Secthd Serfdom 18 c. Junkers John Brewer Sinews of Power -15% enough wealth to sit in House of Parliament, didn’t apply to women/most men -Louis 14 and others in 1700 – Divine Right Theory -1700 – Divine Right Theory -English were the exception th -Glorious Revolution not complete w/o 18 century finance -> problems with government to have wealthy families share everything, basically hit wealthy people over their head and make them share that and lots of money -first bank – German bankers 15 century -1694 formation of Bank of Europe – bank is going to solicit bans from wealthy people in 1690’s –bank give weighty tax return – w/in next to year -8% flowing from Parliamentary enactment and then the bank loaned the money to Parliament (and for the king to build a bridge/war…), essentially spending money it doesn’t happen to have -> creating deficit but not much corruption/interference ~1687 - debt on red in England since loan %’s eventually decrease so it’s eventually more like a stake in a bond (1720) -loans for common businessmen -only eventually France begins to dominate the world (19 century) -French anyone else could have but after 1688 (Glorious Revolution), people who were loaning $ felt this government is more theirs now -1720/30 – you can buy or sell these certificates -early stock market th th -Dutch (early 17 century), Dutch crash market, English does in the 18 century, so clearly this is not a perfect system -well to do self-interest inventors -Commercial Revolution: early-modern economics (17 and 18 century) th -Europe is becoming more wealthy (North-Westerners, English, Dutch, France – maybe China?) -turnover of $ in early 18 century -Portuguese and Spanish colonized first -population of western hemisphere 1492 – at least 50 million people ultimately decimated by disease, violence, anthropocentric sub- human/animal-like perspective 1500-1600 millions – maybe 20 million Natives left at this point -Spanish loot the gold and silver th -migrants from England (800,000 people) sent 17 century, in western hemisphere with a new market of people for people for experts, raw material, after $ 1700 = pretty robust central old vs. new world traffic -slavery – 1540 – in Spain’s colonies -English 16 million bodies -Asiento Right – awarded to the Europe at the end of the series of wars -England had right to give Spain all their slaves -no philanthropy in the slave trade and $$$ had to be made -in Cuba and Brazil, conditions were awful and usually died before they could reproduce -“Triangular trade.” – many different commodities but the consistent ones were the slaves -“Robert Palmer” – conservative England historian -why does England industrialize first? -18 century wealthy in trade/slaves -domestic revolutions … agricultural revolution -> farming, fundamental/initial factories in Europe increase, especially in England -food available, faster pace of economic growth -England’s population (1770’s) smallpox vaccination -Age of Marriage: *men and women married later and had fewer children -many ordinary men and women pushed off their land -Age of Marriage drops -illegitimacy rampant in Europe, Europe a market for food -increased production of agriculture, increase of rural capitalism, rural entrepreneurs, not Dukes and counts -substantial farmers – gentry -> esquire (more money and more market causes the desire to farm more land) -17 and 18 land-owned leases because there clearly was not enough extra cash -lease prices go up because of who and what is produced by the land -Enclosure: 400 acres of land, around you what was controlled by someone else, the land was divided, you might even change land agreements -“Enclosure Acts” – legally changing land agreements and kicking people off their land -Examples of enclosure: 1550’s…-1700’s – land around enclosures 80% of southeast England -nearly landless, 70% less than 5 acres (not enough) -1800 – now only 1/3 ran their land agriculturally -most people kicked off their land -1720 – if you had lost land, subject to composure to land, they are the markets -have to find access to food (only part of Europe) except the less industrial, more agricultural Dutch---not just in the market, you are the market -1700 this all brand new, so gentry boosts land production – agricultural activity -manure – animals and people -medieval culture quite difficult to achieve -food supply begins to run out- killed your manure supply once you’ve killed all your livestock -synthetic manure – 1900’s -start cultivating turnips – turnips are easy to grow, and can even feed you cows in the wintertime -Alfalfa (originally from ancient Iran) soaks up and puts nitrogen back in the soil/part of the hay family -even soil spread out, seed yields ramped up in Europe, increased wealth and increased population -internally better agriculture -by 1800, most cannot produce their own dependent on a mass-market land -going to town in London, etc. th th -European town 18 -19 century – more people are dying in London than are being born -still – migration from countryside ran into towns and factories -18 century rural wages trending slightly down, might be working for guy that took your land -1710-1810- “Putting-out system”/Domestic -North revolves around the production of certain systems -> metal objects, knives, shovels, picks -> textiles – cloth, wool -sell cloth goods all over world from agent maybe in America -England ensures steady supplies of textiles (cheaper = rural production) -bit of woll-1 town initially treats than 1 town dyes … 12 steps maybe and then are sent over to places such as Amsterdam and paid by the piece = “Putting-out System” -by the end of the pile you are paid by what you’ve given – might have ~5 acres of land to grow some food -whole family can work on this, or some can go to town, burn -turnips – winter = good work to have with this new system -have to buy equipment -might be accused of stealing some material -guy in Amsterdam not guaranteed, say a Civil War breaks out during the selling of these items -market economy, don’t have control but best-option -France = peasants -small farmers, very difficult to kick out -efforts to enclosure that don’t go far peasants – stay on land is the main tax base -Eastern Europe: seemed serfdom was different than the proprietors in England -kings/leaders had a much tighter grip on their peasants -increase in more leader power as demonstrated by imposing more obligations from people renting/hiring off the land -1500’s ended everywhere else -1700’s take whole century, impose obligation on land will work your land for free a few days per week -tell serfs they cannot leave without permission – there would be a penalty, lord would tell you marriage job/ who/what, thus these people were essentially slaves (serfdom end in Russia: 1861) -serves went with the land, increase in leader boosting food production nd -2 therfdom 1848-49: -18 century England no property to call your own -labor productivity increased in eastern Europe, and people producing more or is it the benefit of innovations increasing (non-tangible growth)? -Eastern European revolutions formally end this serfdom only -Junkers – Eastern Europe aristocracy, on their own land they are essentially kings 02/01 William III Louis XIV James II King William’s War, 1689-97 Boyne, 1690 Ireland War of Spanish Succession, 1071-13 Blenheim, 1704 Utrecht, 1713 Gibraltar/Minorca Asiento Rights Act of Union, 1707 War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48 Silesia Maria Theresa (1740-86) Fred the Great, 1740-86 Prussia Seven Years War, 1756-63 -Hanover -Peace of Paris, 1763 -War for America, 1776-83 -Saratoga, 1777 -France -Yorktown, 1781 -Peace of Paris, 1783 The map quiz is going to be this Wednesday, 02/03 No political boundaries, and they are going to change anyways - 18 century, many of these places have not been established yet -pg. 1227, Modern European Map William III, conqueror and Dutch -William’s goal as a Dutchman was to enlist the English as an aid, propels him as a Dutchman with King William -banks propelled him -instilled the beginning of war: King William’s War or “the Nine Years War” -France the biggest power of the day against a larger alliance (English, Dutch Republic, Sweden, Spain, Austrain-Habsburgs rulers, Bovarian-Saxony, smaller parts of Europe) -about politics but also a smaller part about religion, because Louis XIV kicked Protestants out, (previously had been tolerated to having kicked the Calvinists), until this and the English cared about Protestantism and were concerned about the Protestantism that was in danger as well if Louis XIV took over Louis XIV- King of France and representative of Absolute Monarchy James II – kicked out of Britain -James II considered himself the best rule in England, 1689, James lands in Catholic Ireland and is welcomed and considered a king -William and Mary crowned in 1689, so considering there is instability provides the background for the chaos that is about to ensure -1689, French defeat the Dutch fleet that is in the channel, and the stage is set for another insurrection in England – James is to recruit a bunch of Irish to help fight -Louis XIV had already sent many of his troops to central Europe to take-over, and the French don’t dare cross the English Channel to invade -1690 – William III the new English king, cross to defeat Ireland – Battle of Boyne – 1690, James II runs back to France as old habits die hard – Irish and French are defeated -Ireland becomes a full colony of England -English had been pushing into Ireland essentially since the 1690’s but by the end of the turn of this century most land belongs to the English or Scottish in Ireland -England annexed Ireland from the fact that Irish tenant farmers’ contracts are dismissed, they can be raised at will or sent off their land at will -Irish-born men cannot participate as politicians, teachers, solders, sailors, or dog-catchers? –can’t convert to the English Church unless to give up respect -punitive laws are aimed at Irish lords, can’t buy land from Protestant people, can’t inherit or give all of their money to one progeny-thus breaking up all wealth in about 3 generations -by the end of the 18 century, Ireland is mainly a tenant famers, except Northern Ireland -Irish Parliament in Dublin, not Irish-Catholics but had to be in the Church of England (about 0.4% of population) -this war ends in 1697 without many violence and same with the War of Spanish Succession -all European war, 1701- another war, Spain still had colonial empire in Philippines (Catholic) (ie. the ‘Islands Belonging to Phillip II of Spain’ $$, and Asia -Spain dies after without an heir, Charles II dies -late 17 France, late 16 Spain, Spain is over the mark of affordability, but still have many colonies -question of who will inherit the army, country – Louis XIV invades Spain and territories, annexes what is called the Spanish Netherlands, now Belgium. -French have an ally in Bavaria, otherwise it’s just them against the French -during the reign of Queen Anne, from the English point of view it is called “Queen Anne’s War” -when William dies 1701, Louis the 14 publically represents James as the King of England -there is an English army in the Netherlands, low country that is actively assisting the Dutch against Louis XIV -Louis XIV hopes to defeat Austrians, who control about a third of lower Europe, Blenheim, 1704 -The plan is to knock the Austrians out of the war, Duke of Marlborough (related to Duke of Ellington) with British, catch Louis XIV’s best French army -30,000 Frenchmen dead or wounded after this disaster, the fighting continues but too many have perished -1710, the French began to go bankrupt, the war in England – anti-war Parliamentary movement in England 1709, anti-war funding begins and England drops out -Treaty of Utrecht, 1713 – the problem about the Spanish empire which really is dealt with to no satisfaction, the Austrian Habsburgs in Vienna are given much of originally Spanish Italy (Nice, Milan, etc.) and the northerners will rule this area for almost the next 150 years -The Austrian Habsburgs are given more of North parts of Italy, Spain retreats -The British get Gibraltar(French naval)/Minorca(where France and Spain join together, Balearic Islands) -The geography of France include naval land and sea, but owning Gibraltar means the French would have trouble with maintaining peace -Minorca is a spy station which is essentially on the coast of France and now the English can see what’s going on, English have other small-ish territories, England is a major power, France’s equal at the 18 century -French give English Hudson’s Bay, Nova Scotia, and in 1713 the French keep he northern part of Europe -in order to get to Montreal and Northern Canada, you need the strategy of utilizing the northern seaboard of Canada -Asiento Rights, legal right of England to produce as much slave traffic as they want for the Spanish, not much in 1718, but much more later on in the century -Scotland, Act of Union, 1707, Stewart Kings were Kings of Scotland and England respectively, having been imported, but despite the fact that they were the same Kings for 107 or so years, the area of Scotland had developed similar ideas -what we get at the end of this struggle is this Act of Union, the restrictions are between the Scotland’s and England’s Parliament -Scotland gets to keep type of Protestantism and church and political functioning, but they certainly recognize the King of England’s status, kings of Hanover (George I,…) but they also get representation in Parliament (about 1 million people in England) -the English Parliament has about 300 people in it, get about 1 in 6 seats for Scottish lords, good deal, Scottish Parliament ends -Scottish Parliament re-enters existence in 1998 -Scottish elites get growing access to the emerging new word, i.e. trade with merchants in New England and such, Scottish can bring livestock to England market, thus symbolizing a dissolution of separate Scottish-market economy -offered a huge bribe to give up all their power, about 15,000 ? -England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, all together -from the English point of view, one of the things that are interesting is to prevent any military repercussions from Scotland – about 100 miles away -the elites are given a reason to behave, the potential for Scottish and France to become allies -Pretender James III, make him Scottish king and become the invader of Britain – only talk really -Wars of the mid-18 century, two great protagonists are the French and the British -War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48 -Seven Years War, 1756-63 -Most of these fights are in Europe, some fighting in the Caribbean, some in the sub-continent of India, increasingly expensive -this war begins with the death of the Austrian Emperor, succeeded by his daughter, Marie Theresa (inherits Vienna, Bohemia, others in the area of Southern Europe) -Frederick The Great, 1740-86 , marches to Silesia (now half in Germany, half in Poland), rich state that was sieged -in terms of war, the Austrians and the Silesians are conflicted as to who will rule, 1866- Prussians (Germanys) win and Germans are pushed back -English come to the aid of the Austrians, French buddy up to the Prussians -Prussia not a well-constrained, organized system -Prussia had developed a good, small army to protect themselves though -England, Austria against French, Prussians -Dutch are just done -When this war breaks out, the French again begin to invade with their fleet, Scottish Catholics begin to recognize the King James III, he begins to walk with their army half-way to England, give up, and walk home -War of Austrian Succession 1748, war has died down, except Prussians keep Silesia -War of 7 years much more bloody, sides change significantly -English and Prussians, French and Austrians – swapped -in the Age of the Hanoverian Kings – for English to protect king in Central Europe if it is surrounded the territory of Hanover -renewed round of fighting in central Europe, (colonial POV), and fighting in Asia -Austrian and French are joined by Russians (just finished St. Petersburg, Baltic stuff) -beginning of Russia’s involvement in the war – Russia had in mind to attack Prussia, not good enough army to protect all sides, but the countries did not attack all at the same time, thus the Prussians kept their independence -1757, Hanover occupied by French - what sets the Prussians apart besides a terrific army is a mass subsidy from the British -Fred the Great, 160,017 pounds from Britain to hire German mercenaries to defend against the British and Russians -Germany decided to fight against Prussians, credit* -overseas, the same $ has allowed the military development of the best military fleets in the world, 1763, French tries to block out British and fail, northern areas -French lose their colonies in Caribbean, like Martinique, and English take over -by 1761, French power has disappeared in Indian, Caribbean, other islands -Peace of Paris 1763: the French empire has evaporated, get some fishing rights off New Finland -French power still in first rank -Prussians keep Silesia for good, Austrians reward themselves by attacking their next-door neighbors the Ottoman Empire (Hungary, etc.) -British too are financially pinched, spent a lot of money and have used their credit card a lot -War for America, when the “ink is still” wet in the Treaty of Paris, British have two concerns in 1763 regarding North America –stop colonists from spilling over Appalachians (Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois) British troops would have to go there to protect the British colonists, who could not afford to protect against Natives or French colonists, and yet the soon-to-be-Americans wanted costly protection that soon turned political -Boston, Virginia, etc. saw themselves as English people and did not see themselves not utilizing the same rights as those in England -British people begin to oppose the Stamp Act, absolutely no one in Boston is thinking about independence in 17 century -1774, all the colonies except Georgia meet as the Continental Congress -couldn’t think of a way to respond to the British -Concord, Lexington, Bunker Hill- 1776, America declares independence -British clearly do not have a plan to deal with this, $, power, men, naval equipment -British could have conquered or reconquered army -Continental Congress seen as a meeting of English men and really the British still consider everything and everyone fine -when the war breaks out, the British have all the advantages, but the Americans had a certain amount of enthusiasm and understanding of the way of the land -Boston, Philadelphia -Battle of Saratoga, Oct. 1777, British army coming down form Canada, another army coming up from NYC, but they tried to squash Washington’s army -General Burgoyne lost and had to surrender, in terms of men this is not a tragedy, but after Saratoga, the French notice what has happened (1764, Peace of Paris felt awful about forced to give up Canada- Saratoga opened the door to retribution), French largely responsible to creating American independence and recognized “American Republic” -Spain and French join alliance in 1780’s -the British will have more successes, Battle of Yorktown, 1781 -British army is hemmed-in by Washington on the French side, French create a vacuum -Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, British have everything more than the will to be successful in this war -the British do walk away from the North American territory -Peace of Paris – 1783, Britain recognizes American independence all the way out to the Mississippi River -British lose protection for the colonies, give up only slightly the triangular, and still dominate the oceans- British fleet stays on hold of Atlantic and many European countries, including the French do not get much more than declining economy, file for bankruptcy essentially -French monarchy lost control of the tax system, in the hands of private individual tax-farmers -essentially held the French monarchy hostage -British gain more trade with “New American Public” 1783-1798 British economic trade just about doubled Enlightenment 3/3 -Russia -Austria -Prussia -Poland -Ottoman Empire -Poltava, 1709 -Swedes -St. Petersburg -1770-71 -Crimea -Enlightenment, 1689-1789 -3 Premises -Locke (dies 1704) – would have said the pursuit of property based on lingo) -Newton (back a century would be Francis Bacon) -Philosophes -Deism -Montesquieu (1689-1755) -Spirit of the laws, 1748 -Intermediate powers -“Liberty” -Voltaire (1694-1778) -Empiricism -Descartes -Enl. Absolutism -Adam Smith (1723-90) -Wealth of Nations, 1776 -Battle of Poltava, 1709: -Swedish Empire (Latvia, Poland, etc). dissolves when Spanish attach in 1709 -Russians are just emerging after the European expansion, move out to the Baltic to annex territory south of Finland, St. Petersburg (for awhile Leningrad, Petrograd), port that leads to Atlantic and semi-reliable in transportation -Prussia, a bunch of separate pieces of Europe -Ottoman Empire, at once most of Southern part of Europe and a frequent contender in wars, but in the 18 century they are no long -1781 war with Russians and Ottomans, what Russians are trying to do is to reach a warm-water territory down south and make it the saltwater -Russians annex Romania, Crimea, destroy them on the Black Sea -Prussians and Austrian Empire pushed back into own territory as they saw the Russians exerting their dominances so …-they decide to attack Poland/ areas near Lithuania -Poland was at once in their own golden age, but they were falling apart and fell prey to loss of territory, Prussians get around Danzig, compact Prussian territory created (with only +600,000 people), Austrian Empire (Krakow, north-eastern), Russian (eastern) 1773 1793 1795 – Poland finally taken completely politically to these three conglomerations 1918 – Poland recreated after WWI -French are curious and British do not mind what is happening in Europe, so the conflict continues… -Enlightenment (~1789- The French Revolution begins, some argue 1689): -premises of the Enlightenment stem from the Scientific Revolution (Newton, Locke) -the universe and world is naturally governed -1. secular (ist), not interested in organized Medieval Christianity, -2. science brings civilization to progress especially human dilemmas – “intelligible universe” -common understanding to be the beginning of the Social Sciences (i.e. sociology) -3. man can always be improved upon ->>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> *1 acknowledgement ** big that the adam & eve story isn’t factoring into societal build-up -generations built better foundations for the progeny -is “hope” progressivism? – the hope that diversity will and has changed the world’s landscape …. are nuclear weapons related to these topics? -Enlightenment concepts are not monolithic in their context by areas (i.e. huge French debate over Catholicism -18 C. Britain has left Puritan superstitions behind th -18 Century thinkers – French-word for Philosophers -men of letters, publicists, coffee-house group meets, people people -Locke, Bacon, Newton- Patron of the Arts -learn to speak philosophical, learn to speak French – French-inspired, city- centered major central and western especially) centered at a rural court where the King of Prussia would host the patrons of the arts’ philosophies -Voltaire -mostly men, not women really until the end of the century- but some of the places might siphon some ideas unto the middle class, literacy rates (60-80% in some countries for men in places like London and Paris, unlike much of Europe) -commoners decidedly becoming politically informed -handful of atheists -Deism/Secular Religion – deists believe in a functional world designed by a theoretical God -no creation theory (i.e. Big Bang Theory was not invented yet, 1927) -Philosophes believed the best part about life was figuring out how the world exists, some might still embrace older traditions of Christianity -Newton is an “anti-Trinitarian” -philosophes, Baron de Montesquieu, biggest publication: “Spirit of the Laws”, goal was to figure out situational political moves, absolutism in Ottoman Empire makes lots of sense for geography and size -democracy might be okay for a place like Geneva, questions what would be good for a middle-sized western European country essentially, that would be a mixed/limited monarchy -“we need kings, but we don’t want our kings to be too powerful.” -“intermediate Powers – balance of powers, could be almost anything (Catholic Church, London/powerful cities/Parliament/House of Lords/House of Commons) + limited monarchy = harmonic liberty -worried about the biggest power taking away liberty, yet he still doesn’t like democracy, M finds democracy crass and common th -18 century ideas are far but are still seen in the influence of Founding Fathers (mostly Deists and Philosophes), more-so involved originally in America and then back to Europe for influenced revolutions -Voltaire –politically influential, experiential approach similar to Locke and Newton, Voltaire visits London, exiled, back from exile & popularizes Newton and Locke -Renee Descartes (philosophy done with rationality, ration of experiences as well) – slowly pushed aside for a scientific approach -Voltaire is important in terms of religion – French Catholic Church, knowledge is power so he feels they are corrupting society and polluting progress -accepts the integration of religion in society, but not with the mysteriousness, superstition, and plain irrationality that is promote in the Catholic Church -people like and Voltaire mock the Middle Ages, which of course, are the foundations of the functioning of the Catholic Church -politically, Voltaire = Enlightened Absolutism -Enlightened Absolutism/Enlightened Absolutism -likes more powerful, yet Enlightened Kings -(in the middle of the French Revolution, many might think Enlightened Absolutism would lead to brutality) -Adam Smith (1723-1790), Scottish Lowlands, Father of Modern Economic Thought – Wealth of Nations – 1776 -Smith wants the government to learn to leave market economy alone during times of strive (free-market economy) -“The Theory of Moral Sentiments” earlier text -Enlightened Competitions, small businesses, families-absolutely no corporations, even small competition -“Invisible Hand”- the market will regulate upon itself, even if someone has a monopoly -Adam Smith’s ideas re-worked in the Industrial Revolution 1890’s -eruption of the French Revolution -Enlightenment led to the French Revolution, -Grub Street by Robert Darnton – -popular literature of pop culture sensationalized are controversies about people in power and their scandalous private lives -theorized that the French Revolution has already undermined the reputations of those clergypersons and royalty -kings are stifle progress by their own inadequacies and improper decisions -Tax Farmers – extorting money like an unfair borrow with people who desperately need it -When French Revolution breaks out – France assembles a Bill of Rights (1789-90) and Constitution, which didn’t include monarchs, irony of the origins our the U.S. inspirational texts of rights where originally British -Franco Venturi: historian
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